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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the safety of nelfinavir and nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. METHODS In Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 1022, 38 antiretroviral-naive pregnant women at 10-30 weeks' gestation were randomized to nelfinavir or nevirapine with zidovudine plus lamivudine. The study was suspended(More)
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV infection suppresses viral replication. Yet if ART is stopped, virus reemerges because of the persistence of infected cells. We evaluated the contribution of infected-cell proliferation and sites of proviral integration to HIV persistence. A total of 534 HIV integration sites (IS) and 63 adjacent HIV env sequences were(More)
Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with genital HIV-1 shedding; however, the effect of specific vaginal bacterial species has not been assessed. We tested cervicovaginal lavage from HIV-1-seropositive women for common Lactobacillus species: L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and seven BV-associated species: BVAB1, BVAB2, BVAB3, Leptotrichia, Sneathia,(More)
In a review of 77 HIV positive children seen between 1981 and 1990, 32 were diagnosed as having lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis). Four of the LIP group developed bronchiectasis, a finding not previously reported. The precise factors leading to the bronchiectasis are unclear. All patients had chronically consolidated lung with volume loss. A history of(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinopathy, a relentlessly progressive disease that results in permanent blindness, is the most common opportunistic infection of the eye in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Twenty patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with CMV retinopathy were treated with a new, experimental, antiviral drug,(More)
We determined the abilities of 10 technologies to detect and quantify a common drug-resistant mutant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (lysine to asparagine at codon 103 of the reverse transcriptase) using a blinded test panel containing mutant-wild-type mixtures ranging from 0.01% to 100% mutant. Two technologies, allele-specific reverse transcriptase(More)
The decay of HIV-1-infected cell populations after treatment with antiretroviral therapy has been measured using simple exponential decay models. These models are unlikely to be realistic over periods longer than a few months, however, because the population dynamics of HIV are complex. We considered an alternate model developed by Perelson and colleagues(More)
Nineteen patients with phaeohyphomycosis were treated with itraconazole. Of these, 17 were assessable for clinical outcome. Of these, two had received no prior therapy, five had failed amphotericin B therapy, four had failed ketoconazole or miconazole therapy, and five had failed both amphotericin B and azole therapy. One patient had received only prior(More)