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Antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV infection suppresses viral replication. Yet if ART is stopped, virus reemerges because of the persistence of infected cells. We evaluated the contribution of infected-cell proliferation and sites of proviral integration to HIV persistence. A total of 534 HIV integration sites (IS) and 63 adjacent HIV env sequences were(More)
Detection of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) on only one or a few occasions in infants born to infected mothers has been interpreted to indicate that infection may be transient rather than persistent. Forty-two cases of suspected transient HIV-1 viremia among 1562 perinatally exposed seroreverting infants and one mother were reanalyzed. HIV-1(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate minority variant drug resistance mutations detected by the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) but not consensus sequencing among subjects with primary HIV-1 infection. DESIGN/METHODS Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Consensus sequencing and OLA were performed on the first available specimens from 99 subjects enrolled after(More)
The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy may be limited by the development of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance. Monitoring for resistance will perhaps allow changes in therapy prior to deterioration in the patient's clinical or immunologic status. Our objective was to develop a rapid, specific, and sensitive genotypic assay for(More)
BACKGROUND Compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the genital tract and blood was noted in half of 57 women included in 12 studies primarily using cell-free virus. To further understand differences between genital tract and blood viruses of women with chronic HIV-1 infection cell-free and cell-associated virus populations were sequenced from these tissues,(More)
To facilitate studies of the epidemiology and natural history of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in infants, a practical method for collecting and quantifying the DNA of these viruses was developed. Saliva was collected using small strips of filter paper, and virus was detected using a real-time quantitative fluorescent-probe PCR assay. The sensitivity and(More)
BACKGROUND Detectable HIV-1 in body compartments can lead to transmission and antiretroviral resistance. Although sex differences in viral shedding have been demonstrated, mechanisms and magnitude are unclear. We compared RNA levels in blood, genital-secretions and saliva; and drug resistance in plasma and genital-secretions of men and women(More)
The stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in whole blood collected on filter paper (FTA Card) was evaluated. After >4 years of storage at room temperature in the dark our qualitative assay detected virus at a rate similar to that of our initial test (58 of 60, 97%; P = 0.16), suggesting long-term HIV-1 DNA stability.
The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and enable(More)
454 pyrosequencing, a massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, is often used to study HIV genetic variation. However, the substantial mismatch error rate of the PCR required to prepare HIV-containing samples for pyrosequencing has limited the detection of rare variants within viral populations to those present above ~1%. To improve detection of rare(More)