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OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence and describe the changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization or infection in Canadian hospitals from 1995-2007. SETTING Forty-eight hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. DESIGN Prospective, laboratory-based surveillance for(More)
Rapid detection and accurate identification of methicillin-resistant staphylococci are critical for the effective management of infections caused by these organisms. We describe a multiplex PCR-based assay for the direct detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from blood culture bottles (BacT/Alert; Organon-Teknika, Durham, N.C.). A simple lysis(More)
We describe the epidemiology of heterogeneously resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) identified in Canadian hospitals between 1995 and 2006. hVISA isolates were confirmed by the population analysis profiling-area under the curve method. Only 25 hVISA isolates (1.3% of all isolates) were detected. hVISA isolates were more likely to have been health care(More)
A panel of 24 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains was distributed to 15 laboratories in Canada to evaluate their in-house pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols and interpretation criteria. Attempts to compare fingerprint images using computer-aided analysis were not successful due to variability in individual laboratory PFGE(More)
Mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly being reported in many parts of the world. This study describes the epidemiology and laboratory characterization of mupirocin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Canadian hospitals. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing of 4,980 MRSA isolates obtained between 1995 and(More)
Rapid identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is important for patient management and for prompt epidemiological investigations. We evaluated one in-house method and three commercially available kits for their ability to extract E. coli O157:H7 DNA directly from stool specimens for PCR. Of the 153 stool specimens tested, 107 were culture positive and 46(More)
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a recently identified metallo-β-lactamase that confers resistance to carbapenems and all other β-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of aztreonam. NDM-1 is also associated with resistance to many other classes of antibiotics. The enzyme was first identified in organisms isolated from a patient in Sweden who had(More)
Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by single-locus PCR assays that target the extremity of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec (SCCmec) and part of the adjacent S. aureus-specific open reading frame gene (orfX) is a significant diagnostic advancement, since it provides real-time detection directly from screening(More)
We compared MRSA Select to mannitol-salt agar with 8 microg/ml cefoxitin for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 6,199 clinical samples submitted for MRSA screening. The sensitivities and specificities of MRSA Select and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin were 98% and 92% versus 90% and 78%, respectively (P<0.0001). Most(More)
This study evaluates genetic influence on susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 infection among 106 Black infants from New York and San Francisco born to mothers infected with HIV-1. Genes tested by molecular techniques are HLA class II loci DRB1, DPB1 and DQA1; HLA class III loci complement C4A and C4B; alpha and beta interferons; and the constant region of(More)