Learn More
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that controls growth and development. The first step of RA synthesis is controlled by enzymes of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) families that catalyze oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde. The second step of RA synthesis is controlled by members of the(More)
Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third of all(More)
The unusually high error rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) suggests that polymerization errors by this enzyme contribute to the genetic variability of the AIDS virus. We have analyzed the mechanism for HIV-1 RT infidelity by studying two distinct steps that might lead to base substitution mutations: nucleotide(More)
Removal of a telomere from yeast chromosome VII in a strain having two copies of this chromosome often results in its loss. Here we show that there are three pathways that can stabilize this broken chromosome: homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, and de novo telomere addition. Both in a wild-type and a recombination deficient rad52 strain,(More)
The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) provides patterning information during vertebrate embryogenesis, but the mechanism through which RA influences limb development is unclear. During patterning of the limb proximodistal axis (upper limb to digits), avian studies suggest that a proximal RA signal generated in the trunk antagonizes a distal fibroblast(More)
Neural crest cells (NCC) comprise a multipotent, migratory stem cell and progenitor population that gives rise to numerous cell and tissue types within a developing embryo, including craniofacial bone and cartilage, neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, and melanocytes within the skin. Here we describe two novel stable transgenic mouse lines(More)
Regulation of patterning and morphogenesis during embryonic development depends on tissue-specific signaling by retinoic acid (RA), the active form of Vitamin A (retinol). The first enzymatic step in RA synthesis, the oxidation of retinol to retinal, is thought to be carried out by the ubiquitous or overlapping activities of redundant alcohol(More)
Retinoic Acid (RA) is a small lipophilic signaling molecule essential for embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance. Both an excess of RA and a deficiency of RA can cause pathogenic anomalies, hence it is critical to understand the mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of RA. However, our current understanding of these(More)
The cochleovestibular (CV) nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain, is the nerve that enables the senses of hearing and balance. The aim of this study was to document the morphological development of the mouse CV nerve with respect to the two embryonic cells types that produce it, specifically, the otic vesicle-derived progenitors that give rise to(More)