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BACKGROUND Impairment of olfactory function is a well recognized nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson’s disease(PD). The aim of this investigation was to determine if the MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline can improve olfaction in PD patients. METHODS Thirty-four PD patients participated in this single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled,double-blind(More)
OBJECTIVE Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) follows a defined clinical pattern, and a range of nonmotor symptoms precede the motor phase. The predominant early nonmotor manifestations are olfactory impairment and constipation. The pathology that accompanies these symptoms is consistent with the Braak staging system: α-synuclein in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve,(More)
Sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism (such as atypical parkinsonian disorders like multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, dementia with Lewy bodies and corticobasal degeneration) are multifactorial and as such treatment needs to be tailored to the specific patient case and sleep dysfunction. One also has to consider(More)
Data on frequency, severity and correlations of NMS with motor complications are only available for a limited number of NMS. The NMS Scale (NMSS) is a validated tool to assess a broad range of NMS, which has not been used in NMS fluctuations. We assessed fluctuations of a broad range of non-motor symptom (NMS) for a 1-month time period in fluctuating(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially those with advanced motor complications. The effect of STN DBS on non motor symptoms (NMS) of PD is less well studied. In this article, we review the pertinent literature on the impact of STN DBS on NMS when they(More)
A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the immediate effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) on nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND Immediate effects of STN-DBS on motor functions are well accepted, but similar data on NMS are mainly lacking. METHODS 34 PD patients who received bilateral STN-DBS were examined in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Night-time sleep disturbances are important non-motor symptoms and key determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The Parkinson's KinetiGraph (PKG) can be used as an objective measure of different motor states and periods of immobility may reflect episodes of sleep. Our aim was to(More)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder. It is characterised by the need to move mainly the legs due to uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs, which have a diurnal variation and a release with movement. Management is complex. First, centres should establish the severity of(More)