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This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on smoking and body weight. The relationships between smoking and body weight are evaluated in 70 cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. The mechanisms responsible for differences in body weight are discussed, the weight-related issues that promote smoking behavior are reviewed, methods(More)
Dietary, activity, and body weight differences in high- and low-restrained eaters and the independent impact of dietary restraint on body weight change were evaluated in 287 adults (141 men, 146 women) followed over a 1-year period. Analyses of measures of energy intake, physical activity, and dietary restraint indicated that high-restrained eaters did not(More)
This study examined whether preschool children differed on measures of psychosocial functioning both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One hundred and thirty-two children who varied in levels of body fat participated in the study along with their natural parents. Results indicated that the children did not differ in levels of self-esteem and family(More)
This study describes the prevalence and correlates of psychological abuse in a sample of 3,370 adult women assaulted by male intimate partners. Victims were asked about their history of physical and psychological abuse, characteristics of the current offense, perpetrator characteristics, and their own response to the abuse. Prior psychological abuse was(More)
The effects of nicotine chewing gum and cigarettes on resting energy expenditure (REE) were evaluated. Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which their REEs were measured. Results indicate an acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to(More)
Examined demographic, environmental, and parent-child interactional correlates of physical activity in a group of 222 preschoolers. Activity levels were assessed with a system that quantified directly observed physical activity in the natural environment. Using regression-modeling procedures, results revealed a significant relationship between (a) child's(More)
This review examines the extent to which recent behavioral intervention studies conducted in community settings reported on elements of internal and external validity, with an emphasis on whether research has been conducted in representative settings with representative populations. A targeted review was conducted on community-based intervention studies(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of changes in dietary restraint (chronic dieting) on changes in body weight over time. Subjects were 305 (98 male, 207 female) adults. At pretest, subjects completed a restrained eating questionnaire (Herman & Polivy, 1980), as well as reporting height, weight, gender, race, and age. Subjects were(More)
BACKGROUND This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS). METHODS Two hundred ten girls participated in the GEMS(More)
CONTEXT To aid translation of childhood obesity interventions evidence into practice, research studies must report results in a way that better supports pragmatic decision making. The current review evaluated the extent to which information on key external validity dimensions, participants, settings, interventions, outcomes, and maintenance of effects, was(More)