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BACKGROUND Timing the origin of human malarias has been a focus of great interest. Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host switches were common. Those investigations, however, assumed constant rate of evolution and(More)
We describe the first reported transmission to a human of simian foamy virus (SFV) from a free-ranging population of nonhuman primates in Asia. The transmission of an exogenous retrovirus, SFV, from macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to a human at a monkey temple in Bali, Indonesia, was investigated with molecular and serologic techniques. Antibodies to SFV(More)
Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have long served as an animal model for the study of human disease and behavior. Given the current shortage of Indian-origin rhesus, many researchers have turned to rhesus macaques from China as a substitute. However, a number of studies have identified marked genetic differences between the Chinese and Indian(More)
Animal reservoirs are the most important sources of emerging infectious diseases that threaten human populations. Global travel and tourism bring ever-increasing numbers of humans into contact with animals, increasing the likelihood of cross species transmission of infectious agents. Non-human primates come into contact with humans in a variety of contexts(More)
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are ubiquitous in non-human primates (NHPs). As in all retroviruses, reverse transcription of SFV leads to recombination and mutation. Because more humans have been shown to be infected with SFV than with any other simian borne virus, SFV is a potentially powerful model for studying the virology and epidemiology of viruses at the(More)
The term synanthropic describes organisms that thrive in human-altered habitats. Where synanthropic nonhuman primates (NHP) share an ecological niche with humans, cross-species transmission of infectious agents can occur. In Bangladesh, synanthropic NHP are found in villages, densely populated cities, religious sites, and protected forest areas. NHP are(More)
The retroviral restriction factor TRIMCyp, which is a fusion protein derived from the TRIM5 gene, blocks replication at a post-entry step. Among Old World primates, TRIMCyp has been found in four species of Asian macaques, but not in African monkeys. To further define the evolutionary origin of Old World TRIMCyp, we examined two species of baboons (genus(More)
Human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) virus was identified in Bangladesh in 2011. Surveillance for influenza viruses in apparently healthy poultry in live-bird markets in Bangladesh during 2008-2011 showed that subtype H9N2 viruses are isolated year-round, whereas highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 viruses are co-isolated with subtype H9N2 primarily(More)
In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are prevalent in all species of nonhuman primates. To determine SFV prevalence in humans, we tested 305 persons who lived or worked around nonhuman primates in several South and(More)
Highly pathogenic H5N1 and low pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses are endemic to poultry markets in Bangladesh and have cocirculated since 2008. H9N2 influenza viruses circulated constantly in the poultry markets, whereas highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses occurred sporadically, with peaks of activity in cooler months. Thirty highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza(More)