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In contrast to lipoprotein-mediated sterol uptake, free sterol influx by eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. To identify components of non-lipoprotein-mediated sterol uptake, we utilized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that accumulate exogenous sterol due to a neomorphic mutation in the transcription factor, UPC2. Two congenic upc2-1 strains,(More)
Deletion of the acyltransferases responsible for triglyceride and steryl ester synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as a genetic model of diseases where lipid overload is a component. The yeast mutants lack detectable neutral lipids and cytoplasmic lipid droplets and are strikingly sensitive to unsaturated fatty acids. Expression of human(More)
An orally bioavailable acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, avasimibe (CI-1011), was used to test the hypothesis that inhibition of cholesterol esterification, in vivo, would reduce hepatic very low density (VLDL) apolipoprotein (apo) B secretion into plasma. ApoB kinetic studies were carried out in 10 control miniature pigs, and in(More)
Lipid movement between organelles is a critical component of eukaryotic membrane homeostasis. Niemann Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder typified by lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. Expression of yeast NP-C-related gene 1 (NCR1), the orthologue of the human NP-C gene 1 (NPC1) defective in the disease, in(More)
The citrus flavonoids, naringenin and hesperetin, lower plasma cholesterol in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The ability of these flavonoids to modulate apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion and cellular cholesterol homeostasis was determined in the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. apoB accumulation in the media decreased in(More)
The concept that hepatic cholesteryl ester (CE) mass and the rate of cholesterol esterification regulate hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins remains controversial. The present study was carried out in HepG2 cells to correlate the rate of cholesterol esterification and CE mass with apoB secretion by CI-1011, an acyl(More)
To further test the hypothesis that newly synthesized cholesteryl esters regulate hepatic apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion into plasma, apoB kinetic studies were carried out in seven control miniature pigs and in seven animals after 21 days intravenous administration of the acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor DuP 128 (2.2(More)
Diets containing the soya-derived phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, decrease plasma cholesterol in humans and experimental animals. The mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these isoflavones are unknown. The present study was conducted to determine if genistein and daidzein regulate hepatocyte cholesterol metabolism and(More)
Acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is postulated to play a role in hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion. There is accumulating evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, that cholesterol and/or cholesteryl ester availability can regulate hepatic VLDL secretion. How ACAT inhibition regulates the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein(More)
The concept that hepatic cholesterol synthesis regulates hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins remains controversial. The present study was carried out in HepG2 cells to examine the regulation of apoB secretion by the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin. ApoB accumulation in the media was decreased by 24% and 36% at 10(More)