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The microdialysis technique with one or two probes was used to investigate the modulation of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons by glutamatergic input in the rat in vivo. Male albino Wistar rats (250-300 g) were used. Under chloral hydrate anaesthesia microdialysis membranes were positioned in the parietal cortex, nucleus basalis magnocellularis(More)
The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for measuring single- and double-strand breaks in DNA. The mechanism of formation of comets (under neutral or alkaline conditions) is best understood by analogy with nucleoids, in which relaxation of DNA supercoiling in a structural loop of DNA by a single DNA break releases that loop to extend into a(More)
The long-term effects of beta-amyloid peptide 1-40 injection into the rat forebrain were studied. Ten micrograms of pre-aggregated peptide were injected into the right nucleus basalis of male Wistar rats which were then killed four or six months later. Congo Red staining of histological sections showed that the peptide deposit was aggregated in a fibrillary(More)
The single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was used to evaluate the possibility of detecting single-strand breaks of brain DNA in the early phase of ischemia. Four hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in rats, the percentage of DNA migrating into the comet tail (indicating the presence of breaks) increased from 11.4 +/- 4.70 to(More)
The nucleus basalis of male Charles River Wistar rats was injected with 10 micrograms of the beta-amyloid peptides beta-(1-40) and beta-(25-35) and changes in the morphology of the lesioned area, the release of acetylcholine from the cortex, and in behavior were investigated. Injections of saline and a scrambled (25-35) peptide were used as controls. One(More)
Oxidative DNA damage was measured in the substantia nigra (SN), cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus of 3- and 24-month-old rats, using single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE, 'comet' assay) which allows the detection of DNA breaks and oxidized bases. A significant increase in basal DNA damage was selectively found in the SN of aged rats.(More)
Polyphenols from tea and other beverages such as red wine have been regarded with interest as possible chemopreventive agents against cancer. Here we report that red wine polyphenols (50 mg/kg) administered with the diet to F344 rats for 16 weeks inhibited colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM, 7.4 mg/kg, total dose 74 mg/kg) or(More)
The effects of histaminergic ligands on both ACh spontaneous release from the hippocampus and the expression of c-fos in the medial septum-diagonal band (MSA-DB) of freely moving rats were investigated. Because the majority of cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus is provided by MSA-DB neurons, we used the dual-probe microdialysis technique to apply(More)
Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to(More)
We evaluated the effects of urban air pollutants on human nasal mucosa over an 8-month period on 102 subjects living in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. A group of subjects living in a city with a lower level of pollution (Sassari, Sardinia, Italy) was also analyzed. Nasal mucosa cells were harvested by brushing, a noninvasive procedure. Half of the cells were(More)