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Insulin stimulates the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR); this modified insulin-independent kinase has increased activity toward exogenous substrates in vitro. We show here that replacement of one or both of the twin tyrosines (residues 1162 and 1163) with phenylalanine results in a dramatic reduction(More)
A cloned approximately 5 kb cDNA (human placenta) contains the coding sequences for the insulin receptor. The nucleotide sequence predicts a 1382 amino acid precursor. The alpha subunit comprises the N-terminal portion of the precursor and contains a striking cysteine-rich "cross-linking" domain. The beta-subunit (the C-terminal portion of the precursor)(More)
The X-ray crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the human insulin receptor has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing and refined to 2.1 A resolution. The structure reveals the determinants of substrate preference for tyrosine rather than serine or threonine and a novel autoinhibition mechanism whereby one of the(More)
The formation of disulphide bonds is essential to the structure and function of proteins. These bonds rapidly form either cotranslationally or immediately post-translationally in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Native disulphide pairing for such proteins has been achieved in vitro; however, the rates of reassembly are slow and the conditions(More)
OBJECTIVES With the use of clinical data from a large international cohort, we evaluated and compared affected siblings and isolated cases. STUDY DESIGN Data from 116 families were collected, and patients conforming to our predetermined diagnostic criteria were analyzed. Phenotypic manifestations of affected siblings and singletons were compared with the(More)
The deduced primary sequence of the cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor contains a conserved kinase homology region (receptor residues 1002-1257) flanked by a juxtamembrane region and a C-terminal tail. A soluble 48-kDa derivative (residues 959-1355) containing these regions but lacking the first six residues of the(More)
Insulin promotes insulin receptor beta-subunit phosphorylation on tyrosine, serine, and threonine residues in a variety of cells, including simian COS cells which transiently express human insulin receptors following transfection with a cDNA encoding the wild-type receptor protein. To examine the potential roles of serines 1305 and 1306 and threonine 1348(More)
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 5B4 recognizes a developmentally regulated membrane glycoprotein (Mr approximately 185,000-255,000) expressed on sprouting neurons. The amino acid sequence deduced from lambda gt11 cDNA clones encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the 5B4 antigen is co-linear with that of chick NCAM-ld. The significant level of(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS We tested the hypothesis that the actual or predicted consequences of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene correlate with the pancreatic phenotype and with measures of quantitative exocrine pancreatic function. METHODS We assessed 742 patients with cystic fibrosis for whom genotype and clinical data were(More)