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The objective of this work was to propose a reaction mechanism and to develop a rate equation for the synthesis of isoamyl acetate by acylation of the corresponding alcohol with acetic anhydride using the lipase Novozym 435 in n-hexane. The reaction between isoamyl alcohol and acetic anhydride occurred at high rate in first place. Then, if excess alcohol(More)
INTRODUCTION Verbal and visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test are frequently used in clinical practice to assess attention, executive functions and memory. OBJECTIVE In the present study, as part of the Spanish normative studies of NEURONORMA young adults Project, normative data adjusted by age(More)
INTRODUCTION Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. OBJECTIVE As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen(More)
INTRODUCTION The Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Token Test (TT) are frequently used in clinical practice to assess naming and comprehension. OBJECTIVE The aim of this paper is to present normative data for the BNT and for the TT as part of the NEURONORMA young adults Project. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 179 Spanish healthy subjects from 18 to 49(More)
INTRODUCTION The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. OBJECTIVE In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in(More)
INTRODUCTION In clinical neuropsychology, normative data are necessary to relate the performance of a subject to a reference group. These normative data should be collected from a pertinent population taking into account sociodemographic and cultural factors. OBJECTIVE This paper describes the methods and sample characteristics of a series of Spanish(More)
INTRODUCTION The Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop) measures cognitive flexibility, selective attention, cognitive inhibition and information processing speed. The Tower of London-Drexel University version test (TOL) assesses higher-order problem solving and executive planning abilities. OBJECTIVE In this study, as part of the Spanish normative(More)
INTRODUCTION The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP) and Judgment of Line Orientation tests (JLO) are used in clinical practice to assess visuoperceptual and visuospatial abilities. OBJECTIVE In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present normative data for a short(More)
Concern has been raised about the ability of horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus to traverse intertidal rack-and-bag oyster farms, and how farms may change shorebird foraging activity. During the 2016 horseshoe crab spawning season, experiments conducted in Delaware Bay (New Jersey, USA) assessed the ability of crabs to move among oyster farms and access(More)
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