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Description of the genetic structure of malaria parasite populations is central to an understanding of the spread of multiple-locus drug and vaccine resistance. The Plasmodium falciparum mating patterns from madang, Papua New Guinea, where intense transmission of malaria occurs, are described here. A high degree of inbreeding occurs in the absence of(More)
Malaria parasites are capable of modulating the diversion of resources from asexual growth to the production of stages infective to mosquitoes (gametocytes). Increased rates of gametocytogenesis appear to be a general response to stress, both naturally encountered and novel. We have previously reported earlier and greater gametocytogenesis in response to(More)
Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes grown in vitro were fed through membrane feeders to laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Intact midguts, including entire bloodmeal contents, were removed between 24 and 48 h post-bloodfeeding. Giemsa-stained histological sections were prepared from the midguts and examined by light microscopy. Contrary to(More)
The kinome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum includes two genes encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) homologues, pfmap-1 and pfmap-2, but no clear orthologue of the MAPK kinase (MAPKK) family, raising the question of the mode of activation and function of the plasmodial MAPKs. Functional studies in the rodent malaria model(More)
Plasmodium falciparum is distributed throughout the tropics and is responsible for an estimated 230 million cases of malaria every year, with a further 1.4 billion people at risk of infection. Little is known about the genetic makeup of P. falciparum populations, despite variation in genetic diversity being a key factor in morbidity, mortality, and the(More)
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for(More)
Transmission-blocking vaccines prevent the development of Plasmodium parasite within the mosquito vector, thereby thwarting the spread of malaria through a community. The gold standard for determining the efficacy of a transmission-blocking vaccine is the standard membrane feeding assay. This assay requires the dissection of mosquitoes and microscopic(More)
Methods for estimating probability of identity by descent (f) are derived for data on numbers of genotypes at single loci and at pairs of loci with many alleles at each locus. The methods are general, but are specifically applied to data on genotype frequencies in zygotes of the malaria parasite sampled from its mosquito host in order to find the extent of(More)
Allelic dimorphism is a characteristic feature of the Plasmodium falciparum msp1 gene encoding the merozoite surface protein 1, a strong malaria vaccine candidate. Meiotic recombination is a major mechanism for the generation of msp1 allelic diversity. Potential recombination sites have previously been mapped to specific regions within msp1 (a 5' 1-kb(More)
Purine uptake has been studied in many protozoan parasites in the last few years, and several of the purine transporters have been cloned. In contrast, very little is known about the salvage of preformed pyrimidines by protozoa, and no pyrimidine transporters have been cloned, yet chemotherapy based on pyrimidine nucleobases and nucleosides has been as(More)