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Follicular helper T (T(FH)) cells are critical for germinal center (GC) formation. The processes that drive their generation and effector potential remain unclear. In this study, we define requirements for MHC class II APCs in murine T(FH) cell formation by either transiently ablating or restricting Ag presentation to dendritic cells (DCs). We find that(More)
Lifelong antibody responses to vaccination require reorganization of lymphoid tissue and dynamic intercellular communication called the germinal center reaction. B lymphocytes undergo cellular polarization during antigen stimulation, acquisition, and presentation, which are critical steps for initiating humoral immunity. Here, we show that germinal center B(More)
High-affinity class-switched Abs and memory B cells are products of the germinal center (GC). The CD4+ T cell help required for the development and maintenance of the GC is delivered by follicular Th cells (T(FH)), a CD4+ Th cell subset characterized by expression of Bcl-6 and secretion of IL-21. The cellular interactions that mediate differentiation of TFH(More)
User Services attracts all types. This talent develops differently, and opportunity can knock on many doors. At New York University (NYU) School of Law, we had a few Helpdesk technicians who took a web development class. When our new exam software came without robust administrative/management tools, opportunity did knock. We started off in PHP, scarfed some(More)
At NYU School of Law, all of our exams are administered using technology. By using the words 'exam' and 'technology' in the same sentence, you add challenges. This paper explores our user support strategy developed and refined over the past 6 years to address these challenges for in-class, take-home, and remotely administered exams. We will discuss our(More)
One aspect of the strategic mission for any institution of higher education is the recruitment and retention of top-flight faculty. At New York University (NYU) School of Law, Information Technology Services (ITS) has been collaborating with the Dean's Office over the past few years to make sure that technology is integrated into and supports various(More)
Documentation is a required part of a complete software product or network service. Whether its shareware or shrink-wrapped, the company has to tell the user something about how to use the product. Companies must choose what level of written documentadon the customer receives with the product. Even though documentation is a required part of the product, it(More)
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