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Considerable evidence from both animal and human subject research supports the hypothesis that the amygdala, when activated by emotional arousal, modulates memory storage processes in other brain regions. By this hypothesis, changes in the functional interactions of the amygdala with other brain regions during emotional conditions should underlie, at least(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Changes in gut microbiota have been reported to alter signaling mechanisms, emotional behavior, and visceral nociceptive reflexes in rodents. However, alteration of the intestinal microbiota with antibiotics or probiotics has not been shown to produce these changes in humans. We investigated whether consumption of a fermented milk product(More)
The beneficial effects of mindful awareness and mindfulness meditation training on physical and psychological health are thought to be mediated in part through changes in underlying brain processes. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) allows identification of functional networks in the brain. It has been used to examine state-dependent activity and is well(More)
At rest, brain activity can be characterized not by an absence of organized activity but instead by spatially and temporally correlated patterns of activity. In this experiment, we investigated whether and to what extent resting state functional connectivity is modulated by sex hormones in women, both across the menstrual cycle and when altered by oral(More)
The amygdala appears necessary for enhanced long-term memory associated with emotionally arousing events. Recent brain imaging investigations support this view and indicate a sex-related hemispheric lateralization exists in the amygdala relationship to memory for emotional material. This study confirms and further explores this finding. Healthy men and(More)
We tested the possibility suggested by previous imaging studies that amygdala participation in the storage of emotionally influenced memory is differentially lateralized in men and women. Male and female subjects received two PET scans for regional cerebral glucose-one while viewing a series of emotionally provocative (negative) films, and a second while(More)
Cognitive factors such as fear of pain and symptom-related anxiety play an important role in chronic pain states. The current study sought to characterize abnormalities in preparatory brain response before aversive pelvic visceral distention in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and their possible relationship to the consequences of distention. The(More)
Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may be(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the(More)