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A model of the relations among cognitive precursors, early numeracy skill, and mathematical outcomes was tested for 182 children from 4.5 to 7.5 years of age. The model integrates research from neuroimaging, clinical populations, and normal development in children and adults. It includes 3 precursor pathways: quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention.(More)
Children's numerical competence in kindergarten is highly predictive of their acquisition of mathematics in Grade 1 and Grade 2, suggesting that experiences at home before schooling are important in understanding how numeracy develops. In this study, the mathematical skills of 146 children in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 were correlated with the(More)
The use of words is one of the most direct means of expressing thoughts and feelings. However, past studies have had limited success in correlating word use with personality. The purpose of the present study was to identify categories of word use relevant to personality using a broad range of personality data. Using data from 181 participants, the present(More)
Butterworth (1999; 2005) proposed that several component abilities support our numerical representations and processes: an innate capacity to represent small numerosities (indexed by subitizing), fine motor ability (indexed here by finger tapping), and the ability to mentally represent one's fingers (indexed by finger gnosia). In the current paper, we(More)
The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual counts. On(More)
Past research shows that self-focused attention is robustly positively related to depression, and women are more likely than men to self-focus in response to depressed mood (e.g., R. Ingram, 1990; S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987). The goal of the current study was to further delineate gender differences in the correlates of self-focus as measured through the(More)
What precursor abilities form the building blocks of numerical representations? Two abilities were investigated: the ability to mentally represent small numerosities, indexed by subitizing speed (Butterworth, 1999), and the ability to mentally represent one's fingers, indexed by finger gnosis (Butterworth, 1999; Penner-Wilger & Anderson, 2008). We examined(More)
Attributional complexity (AC,) is a construct designed to describe individual differences in the motivation and preference for complex attributions for behavior. Scores on the Attributional Complexity Scale (ACS) have been found to be related to a lesser propensity to error and greater accuracy in social judgment. However, little is known concerning how(More)
Most children who are older than 6 years of age apply essential counting principles when they enumerate a set of objects. Essential principles include (a) one-to-one correspondence between items and count words, (b) stable order of the count words, and (c) cardinality-that the last number refers to numerosity. We found that the acquisition of a fourth(More)
Background/Context: How do we account for the persistence of below-average math test score performance among California Hispanics who are fluent in English, as well as Spanish-dominant English learners? Recent studies have attributed the problem to an overly rigid focus on " what works " in curriculum and fluency in English to the veritable neglect of the(More)