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Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We(More)
Liver disease is often times associated with increased intestinal permeability. A disruption of the gut barrier allows microbial products and viable bacteria to translocate from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal organs. The majority of the venous blood from the intestinal tract is drained into the portal circulation, which is part of the dual hepatic(More)
UNLABELLED The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin (Muc) 2, secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal(More)
Translocation of bacteria and their products across the intestinal barrier is common in patients with liver disease, and there is evidence that experimental liver fibrosis depends on bacterial translocation. The purpose of our study was to investigate liver fibrosis in conventional and germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice. Chronic liver injury was induced by(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are characterized by altered gut microbiota, inflammation, and gut barrier dysfunction. Here, we investigated the role of mucin-2 (Muc2) as the major component of the intestinal mucus layer in the development of fatty liver disease and obesity. We studied experimental fatty liver disease and obesity(More)
Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver(More)
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-s (Gnαs) and guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 (Gnα11) play an important role in coat color formation. To improve our understanding of Gnαs and Gnα11 expression levels and pattern in the skin of black sheep (Ovis aries) compared with white sheep, we analyzed the expression levels through(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial translocation. Translocated commensal bacteria contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestine binds bacteria and prevents bacterial translocation. METHODS To investigate the functional role of IgA in ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver(More)
We purified a novel mannose binding lectin form Musca domestica pupae by affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose 4B and DEAE weak anion-exchange chromatography. By SDS-PAGE, MBL-1 yielded a single band with the molecular weight of 24 kDa. It was a glycoprotein detected by periodic acid-schiffs staining reaction, with 97.36% protein and 2.1%(More)
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