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The inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine play an important role in modulating pain transmission, both in normal and in pathological situations. In the present study we have combined in situ hybridization for identifying spinal neurons that use the transmitter(s) glycine and/or GABA (Gly/GABA neurons) with immunohistochemistry for c-fos, a marker for(More)
The epidermis is innervated by fine nerve endings that are important in mediating nociceptive stimuli. However, their precise role in neuropathic pain is still controversial. Here, we have studied the role of epidermal peptidergic nociceptive fibers that are located adjacent to injured fibers in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Using the Spared Nerve Injury(More)
Nerve endings in the epidermis, termed nociceptors, conduct information on noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The precise role of epidermal nerve fibers in neuropathic pain is however still controversial. Here, we have investigated the re-innervation patterns of epidermal and dermal nerve fibers in a rat neuropathic pain model. After applying(More)
The endogenous opioid enkephalin is known to inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission. Here we investigated activation of spinal enkephalinergic neurons by determining the proportions of c-Fos expressing (activated) spinal neurons that were enkephalinergic after different acute and chronic peripheral nociceptive stimuli. The number of c-Fos-activated neurons(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the pathophysiology of temperature hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain rodent models, it is essential to be able to quantify the phenotype as objective as possible. Current temperature sensitivity measuring paradigms are performed during exposure to external factors, i.e. light, sound and smell, which modulate behavior(More)
OBJECT Peripheral nerve injuries are a commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in long-term functional deficits. The current gold standard for transected nerves is an end-to-end reconstruction, which results in the intermittent appearance of neuropathic pain. METHODS To improve our understanding of the relation between this type of(More)
PURPOSE Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) is a cyclic regulation of blood flow during prolonged cooling of protruding body parts. It is generally considered to be a protective mechanism against local cold injuries and cold intolerance after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the sympathetic system in initiating a(More)
BACKGROUND Tongue reconstruction after (hemi)glossectomy including sensory recovery is challenging. Although sensory recovery could improve functional outcome, no consensus on the need for reinnervation of the neo-tongue exists. Therefore, a systematic review was performed to determine if sensory reinnervation of free flaps in tongue reconstruction is(More)
One of the sensory complications of traumatic peripheral nerve injury is thermal intolerance, which manifests in humans mainly as cold intolerance. It has a major effect on the quality of life, and adequate therapy is not yet available. In order to better understand the pathophysiological background of thermal intolerance, we focus first on the various(More)
PURPOSE Cold intolerance is defined as pain after exposure to non-painful cold. It is suggested that cold intolerance may be related to dysfunctional thermoregulation in upper extremity nerve injury patients. The purpose of this study was to examine if the re-warming of a rat hind paw is altered in different peripheral nerve injury models and if these(More)