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The inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine play an important role in modulating pain transmission, both in normal and in pathological situations. In the present study we have combined in situ hybridization for identifying spinal neurons that use the transmitter(s) glycine and/or GABA (Gly/GABA neurons) with immunohistochemistry for c-fos, a marker for(More)
The epidermis is innervated by fine nerve endings that are important in mediating nociceptive stimuli. However, their precise role in neuropathic pain is still controversial. Here, we have studied the role of epidermal peptidergic nociceptive fibers that are located adjacent to injured fibers in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Using the Spared Nerve Injury(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the pathophysiology of temperature hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain rodent models, it is essential to be able to quantify the phenotype as objective as possible. Current temperature sensitivity measuring paradigms are performed during exposure to external factors, i.e. light, sound and smell, which modulate behavior(More)
Nerve endings in the epidermis, termed nociceptors, conduct information on noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The precise role of epidermal nerve fibers in neuropathic pain is however still controversial. Here, we have investigated the re-innervation patterns of epidermal and dermal nerve fibers in a rat neuropathic pain model. After applying(More)
OBJECT Peripheral nerve injuries are a commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in long-term functional deficits. The current gold standard for transected nerves is an end-to-end reconstruction, which results in the intermittent appearance of neuropathic pain. METHODS To improve our understanding of the relation between this type of(More)
The endogenous opioid enkephalin is known to inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission. Here we investigated activation of spinal enkephalinergic neurons by determining the proportions of c-Fos expressing (activated) spinal neurons that were enkephalinergic after different acute and chronic peripheral nociceptive stimuli. The number of c-Fos-activated neurons(More)
Mirror-image pain is a phenomenon in which unprovoked pain is detected on the uninjured contralateral side after unilateral nerve injury. Although it has been implicated that enhanced production of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the contralateral dorsal root ganglion is important in the development of mirror-image pain, it is not known if this is related to(More)
The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is known for developing neuropathic pain syndromes after trauma. These pain syndromes can be hard to treat due to the involvement of other nerves in the forearm. When a nerve is cut, the Schwann cells, and also other cells in the distal segment of the transected nerve, produce the nerve growth factor (NGF)(More)
Skin innervation is a dynamic process that may lead to changes in nerve fiber density during pathological conditions. We have investigated changes in epidermal nerve fiber density in three different rat models that selectively produce chronic itch (the dry skin model), or itch and inflammation (the dermatitis model), or chronic inflammation without itch(More)
BACKGROUND Although numerous studies investigate sensory regeneration and reinnervation of the hind paw of the rat after nerve damage, no comprehensive overview of its normal innervation is present in literature. The Evans Blue extravasation technique is a well-known technique to study patterns of skin innervation. This technique has been performed(More)
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