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Calluses from two ecotypes of reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) plant (dune reed [DR] and swamp reed [SR]), which show different sensitivity to salinity, were used to study plant adaptations to salt stress. Under 200 mm NaCl treatment, the sodium (Na) percentage decreased, but the calcium percentage and the potassium (K) to Na ratio increased in the DR(More)
Autophagy is a cellular lysosomal degradation pathway essential for regulation of cell survival and death to maintain homeostasis. This process is negatively regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and often counteracts efficacy of certain cancer therapeutic agents. NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235) is a novel, orally bioavailable dual PI3K/mTOR(More)
When seedlings are grown in the dark, proplastids of the developing leaf differentiate into etioplasts. Greening of etiolated plastids is stimulated by light, which is sensed by various types of photoreceptors. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be a bioactive molecule that could take part in this light-mediated process in plants. In this paper, we show(More)
To study the differential expression of the S100 gene family at the RNA level in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to find the relationship of the S100 gene family with ESCC. Firstly, the specific primers were designed for the different S100 genes with Software Primer 3, which required that both primer sequences of each S100 gene were(More)
To characterize the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to heat shock (HS), we investigated the effects of heat on three types of Arabidopsis seedlings: wild type, noa1(rif1) (for nitric oxide associated1/resistant to inhibition by fosmidomycin1) and nia1nia2 (for nitrate reductase [NR]-defective double mutant),(More)
We previously reported that nitric oxide (NO) functions as a signal in thermotolerance. To illustrate its relationship with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in the tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to heat shock (HS), we investigated the effects of heat on Arabidopsis seedlings of the following types: the wild type; three NADPH oxidase-defective(More)
The tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao is one of the most venomous spiders with a specialized organ, venom gland, which synthesizes and secretes the complex and abundant toxin proteins. The components of the venom have been extensively studied. As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. To obtain a(More)
Cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), a truncated form of caspase-8 that lacks caspase enzymatic activity, primarily acts as a specific inhibitor of the extrinsic death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway [1]. Typically, a death ligand (e.g., TRAIL) binds to its corresponding death receptor (e.g., DR5) to induce oligomerization of the receptors. This(More)
Jingzhaotoxin-34 (JZTX-34) is a 35-residue polypeptide from the venom of Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. Our previous work reported its full-length cDNA sequence encoding a precursor with 87 residues. In this study we report the protein expression and biological function characterization. The toxin was efficiently expressed by the secretary pathway(More)
The mTOR positively regulates cell proliferation and survival through forming 2 complexes with raptor (mTOR complex 1; mTORC1) or rictor (mTOR complex 2; mTORC2). Compared with the mTORC1, relatively little is known about the biologic functions of mTORC2. This study focuses on addressing whether mTORC2 regulates apoptosis, particularly induced by TRAIL(More)