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Although fully MHC-mismatched murine cardiac allografts are rapidly rejected, allografts mismatched at only MHC class I or class II alleles survive long term; the immunologic basis for the long-term survival of MHC class I- or II-mismatched allografts is unknown. We examined the roles of two recently described inhibitory receptors, B and T lymphocyte(More)
Although certain chemokines and their receptors guide homeostatic recirculation of T cells and others promote recruitment of activated T cells to inflammatory sites, little is known of the mechanisms underlying a third function, migration of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells to sites where they maintain unresponsiveness. We studied how T reg cells are(More)
Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Tregs) normally serve to attenuate immune responses and are key to maintenance of immune homeostasis. Over the past decade, Treg cells have become a major focus of research for many groups, and various functional subsets have been characterized. Recently, the Ikaros family member, Helios, was reported as a marker to discriminate(More)
The localization of an axon growth inhibitory molecule Nogo and its receptor (NgR) was investigated in the mouse spinal cord during prenatal development of the commissural pathway. Using the antibody N18, an intense signal for Nogo was localized largely on radial glia processes that are immunoreactive to RC2 antibody during the major period of commissural(More)
Clinical and experimental studies show that inhibition of histone/protein deacetylases (HDAC) can have important anti-neoplastic effects through cytotoxic and proapoptotic mechanisms. There are also increasing data from nononcologic settings that HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) can exhibit useful anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, unrelated to(More)
GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified(More)
LIGHT (TNFSF14), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member expressed by activated T cells, binds to herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which is constitutively expressed by T cells and costimulates T cell activation in a CD28-independent manner. Given interest in regulating the effector functions of T cells in vivo, we examined the role of LIGHT-HVEM(More)
Islet allografts are subject to rapid rejection through host cellular immune responses involving mononuclear cell recruitment and tissue injury. Interruption of leukocyte recruitment through chemokine receptor targeting is of therapeutic benefit in various experimental models, but little is known about the contribution of chemokine pathways to islet(More)
Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) T regulatory (T(reg)) cells maintain immune homeostasis and limit autoimmunity but can also curtail host immune responses to various types of tumors. Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells are therefore considered promising targets to enhance antitumor immunity, and approaches for their therapeutic modulation are being developed. However, although(More)
Adaptive immunity requires signals from both the TCR and the costimulatory molecule CD28. These receptors activate multiple signaling pathways, including the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) cascade, and antigenic signals in the absence of costimulation result in a tolerant state that is enforced by the CDK inhibitory protein p27kip1. We find that CDK2, the(More)