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Odometry is the most widely used method for determining the momentary position of a mobile robot. In most practical applications odometry provides easily accessible real-time positioning information in-between periodic absolute position measurements. The frequency at which the (usually costly and/or time-consuming) absolute measurements must be performed(More)
Exact knowledge of the position of a vehicle is a fundamental problem in mobile robot applications. In search for a solution, researchers and engineers have developed a variety of systems, sensors, and techniques for mobile robot positioning. This paper provides a review of relevant mobile robot positioning technologies. The paper defines seven categories(More)
This paper presents a very simple, yet very effective method for combining measurements from a gyro with measurements from wheel encoders (odometry). Sensor-fusion of this kind has been done before, usually by means of a statistical model that describes the behavior of the gyro and the behavior of the odometry component. However, because these systems are(More)
This paper introduces a method for measuring odometry errors in mobile robots and for expressing these errors quantitatively. When measuring odometry errors, one must distinguish between (1) systematic errors, which are caused by kinematic imperfections of the mobile robot (for example, unequal wheel-diameters), and (2) non-systematic errors, which may be(More)
2. Properties of Odometry Errors Thi s paper describes a practical method for reducing In a typical differential drive mobile robot incremental odometry errors caused by kinematic imperfections of a mobile encoders are mounted onto the two drive motors to count the robot. These errors, here referred to as "systematic" errors, stay wheel revolutions. After a(More)
Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) viruses have been extensively explored as vectors for vaccination or gene therapy. However, one major obstacle to their clinical application is the high prevalence of preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity resulting from natural infection. It has been reported that there are geographic variations in the prevalence of natural(More)
Replication-competent influenza viruses carrying reporter genes are of great use for basic research, screening of antiviral drugs, and neutralizing of antibodies. In this study, two recombinant influenza A viruses with a neuraminidase (NA) segment harboring enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the background of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) were generated. The(More)
We describe a simple and rapid assay for determining the titer of functional and infectious adenoviruses that yields reliable results within 36 h. The method consists of an initial incubation of serial diluted adenoviruses on HEK293 cells and a subsequent detection of adenovirus genomic DNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. With an adenovirus of(More)
Preventing and treating influenza virus infection remain a challenge because of incomplete understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, limited therapeutics and lack of a universal vaccine. So far, methods for monitoring the course of infection with influenza virus in real time in living animals are lacking. Here we report the visualization of influenza(More)
Abstrucf-A method that determines the absolute position of a mobile system with a hybrid optoelectronic processor has been developed. Position estimates are based on an analysis of circular landmarks that are detected by a TV camera attached to the mobile system. The difference between the known shape of the landmark and its image provides the information(More)