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Odometry is the most widely used method for determining the momentary position of a mobile robot. In most practical applications odometry provides easily accessible real-time positioning information in-between periodic absolute position measurements. The frequency at which the (usually costly and/or time-consuming) absolute measurements must be performed(More)
Exact knowledge of the position of a vehicle is a fundamental problem in mobile robot applications. In search for a solution, researchers and engineers have developed a variety of systems, sensors, and techniques for mobile robot positioning. This paper provides a review of relevant mobile robot positioning technologies. The paper defines seven categories(More)
This paper presents a very simple, yet very effective method for combining measurements from a gyro with measurements from wheel encoders (odometry). Sensor-fusion of this kind has been done before, usually by means of a statistical model that describes the behavior of the gyro and the behavior of the odometry component. However, because these systems are(More)
This paper introduces a method for measuring odometry errors in mobile robots and for expressing these errors quantitatively. When measuring odometry errors, one must distinguish between (1) systematic errors, which are caused by kinematic imperfections of the mobile robot (for example, unequal wheel-diameters), and (2) non-systematic errors, which may be(More)
2. Properties of Odometry Errors Thi s paper describes a practical method for reducing In a typical differential drive mobile robot incremental odometry errors caused by kinematic imperfections of a mobile encoders are mounted onto the two drive motors to count the robot. These errors, here referred to as "systematic" errors, stay wheel revolutions. After a(More)
Preventing and treating influenza virus infection remain a challenge because of incomplete understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, limited therapeutics and lack of a universal vaccine. So far, methods for monitoring the course of infection with influenza virus in real time in living animals are lacking. Here we report the visualization of influenza(More)
Abstrucf-A method that determines the absolute position of a mobile system with a hybrid optoelectronic processor has been developed. Position estimates are based on an analysis of circular landmarks that are detected by a TV camera attached to the mobile system. The difference between the known shape of the landmark and its image provides the information(More)
This paper describes the design and implementation of a model-reference adaptive motion controller for a diflerential-drive mobile robot. This controller uses absolute position information to modify control parameters in real time to compensate for motion errors. Robot motion errors are classified into internal and external errors. Cross-coupling control(More)