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Prior research demonstrates that understanding of theory of mind develops at different paces in children raised in different cultures. Are these differences simply differences in timing, or do they represent different patterns of cultural learning? That is, to what extent are sequences of theory-of-mind understanding universal, and to what extent are they(More)
Can children reason the Bayesian way? We argue that the answer to this question depends on how numbers are represented, because a representation can do part of the computation. We test, for the first time, whether Bayesian reasoning can be elicited in children by means of natural frequencies. We show that when information was presented to fourth, fifth, and(More)
English-speaking children understand and produce generic expressions in the preschool years, but there are cross-linguistic differences in how generics are expressed. Three studies examined interpretation of generic noun phrases in three- to seven-year-old child (N=192) and adult speakers (N=163) of Mandarin Chinese. Contrary to suggestions by Bloom (1981),(More)
Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets, results in enormous economic loss in swine-producing areas of the world. To develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of TGE, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B. subtilis CotGSG) displaying the transmissible gastroenteritis(More)
This study explores the development of free will beliefs across cultures. Sixty-seven Chinese 4- and 6-year-olds were asked questions to gauge whether they believed that people could freely choose to inhibit or act against their desires. Responses were compared to those given by the U.S. children in Kushnir, Gopnik, Chernyak, Seiver, and Wellman (). Results(More)
This study investigated moral judgment in children with high-functioning autism and their cooperation in prisoner's dilemma game with partners of different moralities. Thirty-eight 6- to 12-year-old high-functioning autistic (HFA) children and 31 typically developing (TD) children were recruited. Children were asked to judge story protagonists' morality.(More)
This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the(More)
Research based on naturalistic and checklist methods has revealed differences between English and Chinese monolingual children in their trajectories of learning nouns and verbs. However, studies based on controlled laboratory designs (e.g., Imai et al., 2008) have yielded a more mixed picture. Guided by a multidimensional view of word learning (in which(More)
Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the(More)
Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary(More)