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Self versus non-self discrimination is a central theme in biology from plants to vertebrates, and is particularly relevant for lymphocytes that express receptors capable of recognizing self-tissues and foreign invaders. Comprising the third largest lymphocyte population, natural killer (NK) cells recognize and kill cellular targets and produce(More)
Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive(More)
Subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside in the mucosa and regulate immune responses to external pathogens. While ILCs can be phenotypically classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 subsets, the transcriptional control of commitment to each ILC lineage is incompletely understood. Here we report that the transcription factor Runx3 was essential for the(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system; they can control virus infections and developing tumors by cytotoxicity and producing inflammatory cytokines. Most studies of mouse NK cells, however, have focused on conventional NK (cNK) cells in the spleen. Recently, we described two populations of liver NK cells, tissue-resident NK (trNK)(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell tolerance mechanisms are incompletely understood. One possibility is that they possess self-specific activation receptors that result in hyporesponsiveness unless modulated by self-major histocompatability complex (MHC)-specific inhibitory receptors. As putative self-specific activation receptors have not been well characterized, we(More)
NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes that can react to cells lacking self-MHC class I. However, NK cells that cannot engage self-MHC through an inhibitory receptor are resistant to stimulation through their activation receptors. To become licensed (i.e., functionally competent to be triggered through its activation receptors), an NK cell must engage host(More)
This paper introduces an innovative cache design for vector computers, called prime-mapped cache. By utilizing the special properties of a Mersenne prime, the new design does not increase the critical path length of a processor, nor does it increase the cache access time as compared to a direct-mapped cache. The prime-mapped cache minimizes cache miss ratio(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic abdominal pain consult gastroenterologists frequently, requiring a large number of examinations. AIM To assess the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in patients with chronic abdominal pain of unknown origin and negative diagnostic work-up. PATIENTS From January 2002 to September 2004, 16 patients (10 female; mean age(More)
BACKGROUND Bone cancer pain is currently a major clinical challenge for the management of cancer patients, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the spinal sensitization remain unclear. While several studies demonstrated the critical role of proteinase-activated receptor (PAR2) in the pathogenesis of several types of inflammatory or(More)
The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells and a subpopulation of NK cells which requires an intact thymus, that is, thymic NK cells, is poorly understood. Previous in vitro studies indicate that double negative (CD4⁻CD8⁻, DN) thymocytes can develop into cells with NK cell markers, but these cells have not been well characterized. Herein, we generated(More)