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Our understanding of the cellular implementation of systems-level neural processes like action, thought and emotion has been limited by the availability of tools to interrogate specific classes of neural cells within intact, living brain tissue. Here we identify and develop an archaeal light-driven chloride pump (NpHR) from Natronomonas pharaonis for(More)
Neural interface technology has made enormous strides in recent years but stimulating electrodes remain incapable of reliably targeting specific cell types (e.g. excitatory or inhibitory neurons) within neural tissue. This obstacle has major scientific and clinical implications. For example, there is intense debate among physicians, neuroengineers and(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1) has been proved useful for the identification of cancer stem cells. However, our knowledge of the expression and activity of ALDH1 in common epithelial cancers and their corresponding normal tissues is still largely absent. Therefore, we characterized ALDH1 expression in 24 types of normal tissues and a large(More)
BACKGROUND The novel influenza A H7N9 virus emerged recently in mainland China, whereas the influenza A H5N1 virus has infected people in China since 2003. Both infections are thought to be mainly zoonotic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China so far.(More)
Neural precursor cells contribute to adult neurogenesis and to limited attempts of brain repair after injury. Here we report that in a murine experimental glioblastoma model, endogenous neural precursors migrate from the subventricular zone toward the tumor and surround it. The association of endogenous precursors with syngenic tumor grafts was observed,(More)
BACKGROUND There were large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in both 2008 and 2009 in China. METHODS Using the national surveillance data since 2 May 2008, we summarized the epidemiologic characteristics of the recent outbreaks. Using a susceptible-infectious-recovered transmission model, we evaluated the transmissibility of the disease and(More)
Proliferative cells expressing proteoglycan neuron-glia 2 (NG2) are considered to represent parenchymal precursor cells in the adult brain and are thought to differentiate primarily into oligodendrocytes. We have studied cell genesis in the adult amygdala and found that, up to 1 year after the labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine, most(More)
Fate choice decision and the initiation of neuronal development occur in precursor cells of the adult dentate gyrus. We here show that the earliest signs of neuronal function can be detected in a nestin-positive progenitor cell population, which is morphologically distinct from the putative radial glia-like stem cells. Whereas radial glia-like stem cells(More)
Electrically excitable cells are important in the normal functioning and in the pathophysiology of many biological processes. These cells are typically embedded in dense, heterogeneous tissues, rendering them difficult to target selectively with conventional electrical stimulation methods. The algal protein Channelrhodopsin-2 offers a new and promising(More)
Although immune mechanisms can suppress tumour growth, tumours establish potent, overlapping mechanisms that mediate immune evasion. Emerging evidence suggests a link between angiogenesis and the tolerance of tumours to immune mechanisms. Hypoxia, a condition that is known to drive angiogenesis in tumours, results in the release of damage-associated pattern(More)