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The ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) to persist and cause AIDS is dependent on its avoidance of antibody-mediated neutralization. The virus elicits abundant, envelope-directed antibodies that have little neutralization capacity. This lack of neutralization is paradoxical, given the functional conservation and exposure of receptor-binding(More)
BACKGROUND The novel influenza A H7N9 virus emerged recently in mainland China, whereas the influenza A H5N1 virus has infected people in China since 2003. Both infections are thought to be mainly zoonotic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China so far.(More)
The trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is a molecular machine that mediates virus entry into host cells and is the sole target for virus-neutralizing antibodies. The mature Env spike results from cleavage of a trimeric glycoprotein precursor, gp160, into three gp120 and three gp41 subunits. Here, we(More)
Sulfated tyrosines at the amino terminus of the principal HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 play a critical role in its ability to bind the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and mediate HIV-1 infection. Here, we show that a number of human antibodies directed against gp120 are tyrosine sulfated at their antigen binding sites. Like that of CCR5, antibody association(More)
OBJECTIVE A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-related metabolic signature is strongly associated with insulin resistance and predictive of incident diabetes and intervention outcomes. To better understand the role that this metabolite cluster plays in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, we studied the impact of BCAA restriction in a rodent model of(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer, a membrane-fusing machine, mediates virus entry into host cells and is the sole virus-specific target for neutralizing antibodies. Binding the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, triggers Env conformational changes from the metastable unliganded state to the fusion-active state.(More)
Binding to the CD4 receptor induces conformational changes in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. These changes allow gp120 to bind the coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4, and prime the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate virus-cell membrane fusion and virus entry. Soluble forms of CD4 (sCD4) and(More)
The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to the receptor, CD4. How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate viral-cell membrane fusion? The transition from the unliganded to the CD4-bound(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) enters cells following sequential activation of the high-potential-energy viral envelope glycoprotein trimer by target cell CD4 and coreceptor. HIV-1 variants differ in their requirements for CD4; viruses that can infect coreceptor-expressing cells that lack CD4 have been generated in the laboratory. These(More)
Binding to the primary receptor CD4 induces conformational changes in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein that allow binding to the coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) and ultimately trigger viral membrane-cell membrane fusion mediated by the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. Here we report the derivation of an HIV-1(More)