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In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new cells go through a series of stages associated with proliferative activity. The most highly proliferative cell type is an intermediate precursor cell, called type-2 cell. We here report that on the level of type-2 cells a transition takes place between features associated with the glial and the neuronal(More)
D-aspartate (D-Asp) is found in specific neurons, transported to neuronal terminals and released in a stimulation-dependent manner. Because D-Asp formation is not well understood, determining its function has proved challenging. Significant levels of D-Asp are present in the cerebral ganglion of the F- and C-clusters of the invertebrate Aplysia californica,(More)
Voluntarily modulating neural activity plays a key role in brain-computer interface (BCI). In general, the self-regulated neural activation patterns are used in the current BCI systems involving the repetitive trainings with feedback for an attempt to achieve a high-quality control performance. With the limitation posed by the training procedure in most BCI(More)
The content, synthesis and transport of D-aspartate (D-Asp) in the CNS of Aplysia californica is investigated using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with both laser-induced fluorescence and radionuclide detection. Millimolar concentrations of D-Asp are found in various regions of the CNS. In the cerebral ganglion, three adjacent neuronal clusters have(More)
Hypoxia modifies GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) function and can cause seizures, encephalopathy or myoclonus. To characterize the effects of hypoxia on neuronal GABA(A)Rs, we subjected rat cortical neurons to 1% O2 for 2, 4 or 8h, followed by recovery times of 0-96h, and used whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recording to assess GABA(A)R currents and(More)
A complete protocol of in vitro selection and greenhouse screening for glyphosate-tolerant variants in manilagrass (Zoysia matrella [L.] Merr) was established in this study. Newly subcultured calli of more than 5 years’ old were transferred to selection medium containing 2 mM glyphosate. After two rounds of selection, 220 calli survived out of 840 and were(More)
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] acts on chondrocytes and osteoblasts through traditional nuclear Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mechanisms as well as through rapid actions on plasma membranes that initiate intracellular signaling pathways. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream(More)
An astrocyte-like cell population corresponding to residual radial glia represents the neuronal progenitors of the adult mammalian hippocampus. We show that radial glia-like cells of the dentate gyrus express surface-located ATP-hydrolyzing activity and are immunopositive for NTPDase2. This enzyme hydrolyzes extracellular nucleoside triphosphates such as(More)
Bradykinin (BK) has been reported to be a mediator of brain damage in acute insults. Receptors for BK have been identified on microglia, the pathologic sensors of the brain. Here, we report that BK attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta from microglial cells, thus acting as an(More)