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Catechins (flavan-3-ols), the most important secondary metabolites in the tea plant, have positive effects on human health and are crucial in defense against pathogens of the tea plant. The aim of this study was to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of galloylated catechins in the tea plant. The results suggested that galloylated catechins were(More)
Histochemical staining using vanillin-HCl is a potential tool to identify the site-specific accumulation of catechins in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Using this technique revealed that catechins existed ubiquitously in all inspected tissues in young tea leaf, but the distribution was concentrated in the vascular bundle and palisade(More)
Phenolic compounds in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.)] play a crucial role in dominating tea flavor and possess a number of key pharmacological benefits on human health. The present research aimed to study the profile of tissue-specific, development-dependent accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in tea plant. A total of 50 phenolic compounds were(More)
R2R3-MYB, bHLH, and WD40 proteins have been shown to control multiple enzymatic steps in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for the production of flavonoids, important secondary metabolites in Camellia sinensis. Few related transcription factor genes have been documented. The presence of R2R3-MYB, bHLH, and WD40 were statistically and bioinformatically(More)
Flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), an important branch point enzyme in tea plant flavan-3-ol synthesis, belongs to the CYP75A subfamily and catalyzes the conversion of flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols into 3′,4′,5′-hydroxylated derivatives. However, whether B-ring hydroxylation occurs at the level of flavanones and/or(More)
OBJECTIVE Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM) with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the(More)
* It is often assumed that pathogen infection decreases plant fitness, thereby driving the evolution of plant resistance (R) genes. However, the impact of bacterial pathogens on fitness has been shown to be relatively subtle, ranging from positive to negative. * In this study, we focus on the Rps5-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and examine the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effectiveness of backward walking treadmill training for restoration of motor function, balance and walking speed in patients with stroke. METHODS Twenty-six patients with stroke, 17 males and 9 females, aged 36 - 64, with the lower extremity Brunnstrom motor recovery stage at 3 or 4, able to walk for 10 m without walking aid or(More)
Plant resistance (R) genes are a crucial component in plant defence against pathogens. Although R genes often fail to provide durable resistance in an agricultural context, they frequently persist as long-lived balanced polymorphisms in nature. Standard theory explains the maintenance of such polymorphisms through a balance of the costs and benefits of(More)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) has been recently found to play growth-regulatory roles in nucleated cells. To identify any other physiologic roles of G6PD, we generated G6PD-knockdown Hep G2 cells and investigated their susceptibility to oxidants. Hep G2 cells expressing shRNA against G6PD (Gi) were more susceptible to diamide-induced cytotoxicity(More)