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The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) has multiple effects on neuronal activity, survival, and death under conditions that generate a proinflammatory microenvironment within the brain, via signaling through C-X-C-type chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), although the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms are unclear. Using rat hippocampal(More)
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from inhibitory interneurons located within the cerebellar cortex limits the extent of neuronal excitation in part through activation of metabotropic GABA(B) receptors. Stimulation of these receptors triggers a number of downstream signaling events, including activation of GIRK channels by the Gβγ dimer resulting in(More)
Numerous pain-producing (pronociceptive) receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis. However, it is currently unknown which lipid kinases generate PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and if these kinases regulate pronociceptive receptor signaling. Here, we found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5(More)
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) control natriuresis and normalize changes in blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that NPs are also involved in the regulation of pain sensitivity, although the underlying mechanisms remain essentially unknown. Many biological effects of NPs are mediated by guanylate cyclase (GC)-coupled NP receptors, NPR-A and NPR-B, whereas(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within the brain has long been known to be associated with neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorder (referred as HAND), a condition characterized in its early stages by declining cognitive function and behavioral disturbances. Mechanistically, the HIV-1 coat glycoprotein 120 (gp120) has been(More)
The neurobiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain associated with cancers are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that factors specifically elevated in the tumor microenvironment sensitize adjacent nociceptive afferents. We show that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), which is found at elevated levels in the tumor microenvironment(More)
Inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia is principally mediated through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, as demonstrated by prior studies using models of cutaneous inflammation. Muscle pain is significantly different from cutaneous pain, and the involvement of TRPV1 in hyperalgesia induced by muscle inflammation is unknown. We tested(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by aberrant attack of the joints by native inflammatory system. This can lead to joint destruction and pain that can be debilitating. Increased angiogenesis and innervation by nociceptive afferent fibers are characteristic features of RA joints, which in addition to the elevated levels of a wide variety of inflammatory(More)
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