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A key question in sensory perception is the role of experience in shaping the functional architecture of the sensory neural systems. Here we studied dependence on visual experience in shaping the most fundamental division of labor in vision, namely between the ventral "what" and the dorsal "where and how" processing streams. We scanned 11 fully congenitally(More)
The visual word form area (VWFA) is a ventral stream visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It is activated across writing systems and scripts and encodes letter strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual field with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, comparable reading expertise can be(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The exciting view of our brain as highly flexible task-based and not sensory-based raises the chances for visual rehabilitation, long considered unachievable, given adequate training in teaching the brain how to see. Recent advances in rehabilitation approaches, both noninvasive, like sensory substitution devices (SSDs) which present(More)
Cases of invasive sight-restoration in congenital blind adults demonstrated that acquiring visual abilities is extremely challenging, presumably because visual-experience during critical-periods is crucial for learning visual-unique concepts (e.g. size constancy). Visual rehabilitation can also be achieved using sensory-substitution-devices (SSDs) which(More)
Here we studied how congenitally blind subjects represent space in the brain and whether they have spatiotopic maps similar to the sighted. We asked 8 congenitally blind subjects to read specifically designed braille letters with a dot missing in either of the four corners of the braille grid (upper right, upper left, lower right and lower left) and to(More)
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