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Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are very abundant in humans and have antimicrobial specificity, but their functions remain unclear. MAIT cells are CD161(hi)IL-18Rα(+) and either CD4(-)CD8(-) (DN) or CD8αβ(int) T cells. We now show that they display an effector-memory phenotype (CD45RA(-)CD45RO(+)CD95(hi)CD62L(lo)), and their chemokine receptor(More)
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Recognition of M. tuberculosis by pattern recognition receptors is crucial for activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we demonstrate that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are two(More)
Autophagy is emerging as a crucial defense mechanism against bacteria, but the host intracellular sensors responsible for inducing autophagy in response to bacterial infection remain unknown. Here we demonstrated that the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for the autophagic response to invasive bacteria. By a mechanism independent of the(More)
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) was originally described as the minimal effector that was able to reproduce the cytotoxic response of Bordetella pertussis on ciliated epithelial cells. This molecule triggers pleiotropic effects such as immune stimulation or slow-wave sleep modulation. Further characterization identified TCT as a specific diaminopimelic acid(More)
Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T lymphocytes that detect a large variety of bacteria and yeasts. This recognition depends on the detection of microbial compounds presented by the evolutionarily conserved major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class I molecule, MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells display cytotoxic activity towards MR1(More)
NKT and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express semi-invariant TCR and restriction by nonclassical MHC class Ib molecules. Despite common features, the respective development of NKT and MAIT subsets is distinct. NKTs proliferate extensively and acquire effector properties prior to thymic export. MAIT cells exit the thymus as naive cells and(More)
Recent evidence has suggested that signals other than those from Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could contribute to the elicitation of antigen-specific immunity. Therefore, we examined the role of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family member, Nod1, in the generation of adaptive immune responses. Our findings show that innate immune sensing of peptidoglycan by Nod1(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of T cells that display a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and are restricted by the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex related molecule, MR1. Here, we review recent knowledge of this T cell population. MAIT cells are abundant in human blood, gut and liver, and display(More)
Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved T cells that are restricted by the non-classical MHC-1b molecule, MR1. MAIT cells are selected on hematopoietic cells, and exit the thymus with a naïve phenotype before expanding in the periphery and attaining a memory phenotype. MAIT cells represent an abundant oligoclonal population(More)
While a number of microbial-associated molecular patterns have been known for decades to act as adjuvants, the mechanisms and the signaling pathways underlying their action have remained elusive. Here, we examined the unfolding of the adaptive immune response induced by Nod2 in vivo upon activation by its specific ligand, muramyl dipeptide, a component of(More)