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Sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes is mediated by signals present within the cytosolic domains of the proteins. Most signals consist of short, linear sequences of amino acid residues. Some signals are referred to as tyrosine-based sorting signals and conform to the NPXY or YXXO consensus motifs. Other signals known as(More)
The AP-2 adaptor complex is widely viewed as a linchpin molecule in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, simultaneously binding both clathrin and receptors. This dual interaction couples cargo capture with clathrin coat assembly, but it has now been discovered that the association with cargo is tightly regulated. Remarkably, AP-2 is not obligatory for all(More)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis oversees the constitutive packaging of selected membrane cargoes into transport vesicles that fuse with early endosomes. The process is responsive to activation of signalling receptors and ion channels, promptly clearing post-translationally tagged forms of cargo off the plasma membrane. To accommodate the diverse array of(More)
Recruitment of the Golgi-specific AP-1 adaptor complex onto Golgi membranes is thought to be a prerequisite for clathrin coat assembly on the TGN. We have used an in vitro assay to examine the translocation of cytosolic AP-1 onto purified Golgi membranes. Association of AP-1 with the membranes required GTP or GTP analogues and was inhibited by the fungal(More)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis occurs at multiple independent import sites on the plasma membrane, but how these positions are selected and how different cargo is simultaneously recognized is obscure. FCHO1 and FCHO2 are early-arriving proteins at surface clathrin assemblies and are speculated to act as compulsory coat nucleators, preceding the core clathrin(More)
Sorting of transmembrane cargo into clathrin-coated vesicles requires endocytic adaptors, yet RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of the AP-2 adaptor complex only disrupts internalization of a subset of clathrin-dependent cargo. This suggests alternate clathrin-associated sorting proteins participate in cargo capture at the cell surface, and a(More)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends upon the interaction of accessory proteins with the alpha-ear of the AP-2 adaptor. We present structural characterization of these regulatory interactions. DPF and DPW motif peptides derived from eps15 and epsin bind in type I beta turn conformations to a conserved pocket on the alpha-ear platform. We show evidence for(More)
Epsin is a recently identified protein that appears to play an important role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The central region of epsin 1, the so-called DPW domain, binds to the heterotetrameric AP-2 adaptor complex by associating directly with the globular appendage of the alpha subunit. We have found that this central portion of epsin 1 also(More)
The AP-2 clathrin adaptor differs fundamentally from the related AP-1, AP-3, and AP-4 sorting complexes because membrane deposition does not depend directly on an Arf family GTPase. Instead phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) appears to act as the principal compartmental cue for AP-2 placement at the plasma membrane as well as for the(More)
The growth of contemporary cell biology is due in large part to technological advances. In the 1950s, electron micrographs of thin sections first provided unrivaled in situ views of the delicate intracellular architecture and fine structure of organelles, whereas new subcellular fractionation methods gave access to various biochemical components—especially(More)