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Snow stratigraphy and water percolation are key contributing factors to avalanche formation. So far, only destructive methods can provide this kind of information. Radar technology allows continuous, non-destructive scanning of the snowpack so that the temporal evolution of internal properties can be followed. We installed an upward-looking(More)
The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water(More)
Forecasting snow avalanche danger in mountainous regions is of major importance for the protection of infrastructure in avalanche run-out zones. Inexpensive measurement devices capable of measuring snow height and layer properties in avalanche starting zones may help to improve the quality of risk assessment. We present a low-cost L-band frequency modulated(More)
Snow stratigraphy and liquid water content are key contributing factors to avalanche formation. Upward-looking groundpenetrating radar (upGPR) systems allow nondestructive monitoring of the snowpack, but deriving density and liquid water content profiles is not yet possible based on the direct analysis of the reflection response. We have investigated the(More)
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