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Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which(More)
BACKGROUND Clopidogrel is a potent drug for prevention of adverse effects during and after coronary intervention. Increasing experience indicates that a significant proportion of patients do not respond adequately to clopidogrel. Because failure of antiplatelet therapy can have severe consequences, there is need for a reliable assay to quantify the(More)
B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic autoimmune disorders, like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), via multiple effector functions. However, B cells are also implicated in regulating SLE and other autoimmune syndromes via release of IL-10. B cells secreting IL-10 were termed "Bregs" and were proposed as a separate subset of cells, a concept(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and control the adaptive immune response against infections. However, their contributions to the anti-self adaptive immune response in autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus are uncertain. By constitutively deleting DCs in MRL.Fas(lpr) mice, we show that they have complex roles in murine lupus. The net effect(More)
Detection of self nucleic acids by Toll-like receptors (TLR) preciptates autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It remains unknown how TLR signals in specific cell types contribute to distinct manifestations of SLE. Here, we demonstrate that formation of anti-nuclear antibodies in MRL.Fas(lpr) mice entirely depends on the TLR(More)
Platelets play a crucial role in the physiology of primary hemostasis and pathophysiological processes such as arterial thrombosis. Accumulating evidence suggests a key regulatory role of both NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in platelets. While the inhibitory role of NO/cGMP signaling in both murine and human platelets is well established, recent data(More)
B cells play important roles in autoimmune diseases ranging from multiple sclerosis to rheumatoid arthritis. B cells have also long been considered central players in systemic lupus erythematosus. However, anti-CD20-mediated B cell depletion was not effective in two clinical lupus studies, whereas anti-B lymphocyte stimulator, which inhibits B cell(More)
The inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) is a potent promoter of organ inflammation in murine lupus. ICOS stimulates T follicular helper cell differentiation in lymphoid tissue, suggesting that it might drive autoimmunity by enhancing autoantibody production. Yet the pathogenic relevance of this mechanism remains unclear. It is also unknown whether other(More)