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A stringent control of homeostasis is critical for functional maintenance and survival of neurons. In the mammalian retina, the basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor NRL determines rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate and activates the expression of many rod-specific genes. Here, we report an integrated analysis of NRL-centered gene regulatory(More)
DNA microarrays enable users to obtain information on differences in transcript abundance on a massively parallel scale. Recently, however, data analyses have revealed potential pitfalls related to image acquisition, variability and misclassifications in replicate measurements, cross-hybridization and sensitivity limitations. We have generated a series of(More)
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases that result in dysfunction and/or death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. So far, 18 genes have been identified for autosomal-dominant (ad) RP. Here, we describe an adRP locus (RP42) at chromosome 7p15 through linkage analysis in a(More)
Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and(More)
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. It has been hypothesized that microglia undergo age-related changes in gene expression patterns that give rise to pathogenic phenotypes. We compared the gene expression profiles in microglia(More)
Two genetic loci, RP2 and RP3, for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been localized to Xp11.3-11.23 and Xp21.1, respectively. RP3 appears to account for 70% of XLRP families; however, mutations in the RPGR gene (isolated from the RP3 region) are identified in only 20% of affected families. Close location of XLRP loci at Xp and a lack of unambiguous(More)
BACKGROUND DNA microarrays are now routinely used to monitor the transcript levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, the array fabrication method, hybridization conditions, and oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe length can impact the performance of a DNA microarray platform. RESULTS We demonstrate solution-phase hybridization behavior of(More)
Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful technique for identifying sequence changes in the human genome. The goal of this study was to delineate the genetic defects in patients with inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) using WES. WES was performed on 90 patient DNA samples from 68 families and 226 known genes for IRDs were analyzed. Sanger sequencing was(More)
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) guiding differentiation of cell types and cell assemblies in the nervous system are poorly understood because of inherent complexities and interdependence of signaling pathways. Here, we report transcriptome dynamics of differentiating rod photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Given that the transcription factor NRL(More)
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