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Flavonols are produced by the desaturation of dihydroflavanols, which is catalyzed by flavonol synthase (FLS). FLS belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase family. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the FLS gene (designated as GbFLS) were isolated from Ginkgo biloba. The full-length cDNA of GbFLS contained a 1023-bp open reading(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the neural specificity of pericardium PC6, with the same meridian acupoint PC7 and a treatment-irrelevant acupoint GB37 as separate controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole brain was performed in 36 healthy subjects receiving acupuncture at three acupoints, respectively: the study(More)
Acupoint specificity is one of the central issues of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acupuncture and has been under discussed. However, strong and consistent proof has not been provided for the existence of acupoint specificity, and unsuitable analysis approach applied could be the reason. We observed that previous researches of(More)
The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of monolignols. A cDNA sequence encoding the CAD gene was isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L, designated as GbCAD1. The full-length cDNA of GbCAD1 was 1,494 bp containing a 1,074 bp open reading frame encoding a(More)
Hypoxia played an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Hypoxia increased Aβ formation, then caused Alzheimer's disease. Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) was involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, hormonal secretion and other physiological function. Increasing evidence supported CaSR might play a more prominent role in susceptibility(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three(More)
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD(More)
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that contribute substantially to the quality of Ginkgo biloba. Plant flavonoid accumulation is controlled by transcriptional regulation of the genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes, in which the R2R3-MYB transcription factor is a key factor. In this study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a(More)
It is well know that phasic pain could induce suppression of alpha oscillations and enhancement of gamma oscillations. However, the cortical responses to tonic pain, especially tonic pain originating from deep tissue, which was proposed to better resemble the clinical pain, are not well understood. Here we aimed to investigate electroencephalographic (EEG)(More)
Placebo exhibits beneficial effects on pain perception in human experimental studies. Most of these studies demonstrate that placebo significantly decreased neural activities in pain modulatory brain regions and pain-evoked potentials. This study examined placebo analgesia-related effects on spontaneous brain oscillations. We examined placebo effects on(More)