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What is figurative language and why is it a problem? Unambiguous Idiom The 19th century windjammers like Cutty Sark were able to maintain progress by and large even in bad wind conditions. Ambiguous Idiom The government agent spilled the beans on the secret dossier. When Peter reached for the salt he knocked over the can and spilled the beans all over the(More)
We propose an unsupervised method for distinguishing literal and non-literal usages of idiomatic expressions. Our method determines how well a literal interpretation is linked to the overall cohesive structure of the discourse. If strong links can be found, the expression is classified as literal, otherwise as idiomatic. We show that this method can help to(More)
This paper presents a probabilistic model for sense disambiguation which chooses the best sense based on the conditional probability of sense paraphrases given a context. We use a topic model to decompose this conditional probability into two conditional probabilities with latent variables. We propose three different instanti-ations of the model for solving(More)
We investigate the effectiveness of different linguistic cues for distinguishing literal and non-literal usages of potentially idiomatic expressions. We focus specifically on features that generalize across different target expressions. While idioms on the whole are frequent, instances of each particular expression can be relatively infrequent and it will(More)
We propose a novel unsupervised approach for distinguishing literal and non-literal use of idiomatic expressions. Our model combines an unsupervised and a supervised classifier. The former bases its decision on the cohesive structure of the context and labels training data for the latter, which can then take a larger feature space into account. We show that(More)
AIMS We aimed to replicate the association of the rs290487 (IVS3C/T) and rs7903146 (IVS3C/T) polymorphisms of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Han Chinese people in Henan province, China. METHODS In all, 1,842 patients with T2DM and 7,777 normal glucose-tolerant controls underwent genotyping for the(More)
Associations between transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been evaluated extensively in multiple ethnic groups. TCF7L2 has emerged as the strongest T2DM susceptibility gene in Europeans, but the findings have been inconsistent in the Chinese population. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to(More)
Texts frequently contain expression whose meaning is not strictly literal, such as idioms. Idiomatic and non-literal expressions pose a major challenge to natural language processing technology as they often exhibit lexical and syntactic idiosyncrasies. We propose a novel unsupervised method for distinguishing literal and non-literal usages of expressions.(More)
Phytoremediation is an emerging strategy for the removal of heavy metal contaminants. However, one of the prerequisite is to understand adequately plant resistant mechanisms. The present study was performed to assess the role of endogenous SA in plant response to Pb or Cd using wild-type (wt) Arabidopsis and its SA-accumulating mutant snc1, SA-reducing(More)