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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that inhibits osteoblast differentiation while stimulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. TNF-α activates MAP kinase pathway leading to inhibition of osterix (Osx) expression. TNF-α also induces the expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase protein Smurf1 and Smurf2 and(More)
Constitutive or excessive activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway can disrupt the body's immune tolerance to autoantigen, thus promoting the development of autoimmune disease. However, the expression profile of TLR signaling pathway in peripheral blood neutrophils in the pathogenesis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) remains unclear. Thus,(More)
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