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Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface molecules, which act as the principle mediators of molecular dialog between a cell and its extracellular matrix environment. In addition to their structural functions, integrins mediate signaling from the extracellular space into the cell through integrin-associated signaling and adaptor molecules such as FAK (focal(More)
Anthrax infections are frequently associated with severe and often irreversible hypotensive shock. The isolated toxic proteins of Bacillus anthracis produce a non-cytokine-mediated hypotension in rats by unknown mechanisms. These observations suggest the anthrax toxins have direct cardiovascular effects. Here, we characterize these effects. As a first step,(More)
BACKGROUND Because of safety, repeatability, and portability, clinical echocardiography is well established as a standard for cardiac anatomy, cardiac function, and hemodynamics. Similarly, application of echocardiography in commonly used rat experimental models would be worthwhile. The use of noninvasive ultrasound imaging in the rat is a potential(More)
www.thelancet.com Vol 379 April 28, 2012 1567 Several factors have contributed to the social construct of adolescence as a distinct period of life, including the rise in education (and with it age segregation), social media, and urbanisation. But adolescence also has a biological basis. Many of the behaviours we associate with the teenage years (eg, risk(More)
Integrins are the principle mediators of molecular dialog between a cell and its extracellular matrix environment. The unique combinations of integrin subunits determine which extracellular matrix molecules are recognized by a cell. Recent studies have demonstrated that remodeling in heart and vasculature is linked to alterations in extracellular matrix and(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent a clinically important class of agents. NSAIDs are commonly used in treatment of conditions such as headache, fever, inflammation and joint pain. Complications often arise from chronic use of NSAIDs. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in the form of gastritis, peptic erosions and ulcerations and GI bleeds(More)
Fatalities due to anthrax are associated with severe hypotension suggesting that the toxins generated from Bacillus anthracis, lethal toxin (LeTx) and edema toxin (EdTx), have cardiovascular effects. Here, we demonstrate the effects of these toxins and characterize their effects by echocardiography. LeTx leads to a significant reduction in ejection(More)
Infection by Bacillus anthracis in animals and humans results from accidental or intentional exposure, by oral, cutaneous or pulmonary routes, to spores, which are normally present in the soil. Treatment includes administration of antibiotics, vaccination or treatment with antibody to the toxin. A better understanding of the molecular basis of the processes(More)
Anthrax is a disease caused by infection with spores from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. After entering the body, the spores germinate into bacteria and secrete a toxin that causes local edema and, in systemic infections, cardiovascular collapse and death. The toxin is a tripartite polypeptide, consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and(More)