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Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) elicit basal defense responses in plants, and, in turn, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome these PAMP-induced defenses. To suppress immunity, the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae secretes effector proteins, the biochemical function and virulence targets of which remain largely unknown.(More)
KChIPs coassemble with pore-forming Kv4 alpha subunits to form a native complex in the brain and heart and regulate the expression and gating properties of Kv4 K(+) channels, but the mechanisms underlying these processes are unknown. Here we report a co-crystal structure of the complex of human Kv4.3 N-terminus and KChIP1 at a 3.2-A resolution. The(More)
The major effects of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are mediated via two G protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2, elucidation of the mechanism and structural determinants of the CB2 receptor coupling with G proteins will have a significant impact on drug discovery. In the present study, we systematically investigated the role of the intracellular loops(More)
BACKGROUND Virtually all prostate cancer deaths occur due to obtaining the castration-resistant phenotype after prostate cancer cells escaped from apoptosis and/or growth suppression initially induced by androgen receptor blockade. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was an attractive cancer therapeutic agent due to its minimal toxicity to normal(More)
Autoantibodies can be either harmful or beneficial to the body. The beneficial autoantibodies play important roles in immunosurveillance, clearance of body waste and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Despite their importance, however, people's knowledge on the protective autoantibodies is still very limited. In the current study, we examined two(More)
The development of supportive care for cancer patients has been shown to have a positive impact on both mortality rates and many aspects of life after cancer, particularly in young women. Meanwhile, there are still numerous inequalities in terms of cancer mortalities and quality of life among cancer survivors in France. The processes leading to unequal(More)
By using a fragment-assembly strategy and bioisosteric-replacement principle, a series of novel piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cellular target-effector fusion activities and in vitro antiviral activities against HIV-1. Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of target compounds were concluded in this(More)