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G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization provides a G-protein-subtype-independent method for assaying agonist-stimulated activation of receptors. We have developed a novel assay that allows quantitative analysis of GPCR internalization based on the interaction between activated GPCRs and β-arrestin2 and on Nostoc punctiforme DnaE intein-mediated(More)
Nicotinic acid (niacin) has been widely used as a lipid-lowering drug for several decades, and recently, orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR109A has been identified as a receptor for niacin. Mechanistic investigations have shown that, upon niacin activation, GPR109A couples to a G(i) protein and inhibits adenylate cyclase activity, leading to inhibition(More)
Tachykinins constitute one of the largest peptide families in the animal kingdom and exert their diverse actions via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this study, the Bombyx tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) were identified as specific endogenous ligands for the Bombyx neuropeptide GPCR A24 (BNGR-A24) and thus designated BNGR-A24 as BmTKRPR. Using(More)
The pineal gland hormone melatonin exerts its regulatory roles in a variety of physiological and pathological responses through two G protein-coupled receptors, melatonin receptor type 1 (MT1) and melatonin receptor type 2 (MT2), which have been recognized as promising targets in the treatment of a number of human diseases and disorders. The MT1 receptor(More)
INTRODUCTION G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile group of cytomembrane receptors, comprising of approximately 300 non-sensory and druggable members. Traditional GPCR drug screening is based on radiometric competition binding assays, which are expensive and hazardous to human health. Furthermore, the paradox of high(More)
The major effects of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are mediated via two G protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2, elucidation of the mechanism and structural determinants of the CB2 receptor coupling with G proteins will have a significant impact on drug discovery. In the present study, we systematically investigated the role of the intracellular loops(More)
The human hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA₂), also known as GPR109A and HM74a, was first identified as a niacin receptor and has recently received significant attention because of its potential to clinically modify plasma lipids in a favorable manner. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the niacin-induced internalization of HCA₂ receptors is(More)
We have cloned and characterized a naturally occurring split mini-DnaE intein capable of protein trans-splicing in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus (Sel DnaE intein). Sel DnaE intein is homologous to Synechocystissp. PCC6803 (Ssp) DnaE intein and Nostoc punctiforme (Npu) DnaE intein, with a protein sequence identity of 60% for the N-terminal part(More)
Virtually all prostate cancer deaths occur due to obtaining the castration-resistant phenotype after prostate cancer cells escaped from apoptosis and/or growth suppression initially induced by androgen receptor blockade. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was an attractive cancer therapeutic agent due to its minimal toxicity to normal cells and(More)
Autoantibodies can be either harmful or beneficial to the body. The beneficial autoantibodies play important roles in immunosurveillance, clearance of body waste and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Despite their importance, however, people's knowledge on the protective autoantibodies is still very limited. In the current study, we examined two(More)