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Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells mediate homeostatic peripheral tolerance by suppressing autoreactive T cells. Failure of host antitumor immunity may be caused by exaggerated suppression of tumor-associated antigen-reactive lymphocytes mediated by T(reg) cells; however, definitive evidence that T(reg) cells have an immunopathological role in human cancer is(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a prominent component of ovarian cancer stroma and contribute to tumor progression. B7-H4 is a recently identified B7 family molecule. We show that primary ovarian tumor cells express intracellular B7-H4, whereas a fraction of tumor macrophages expresses surface B7-H4. B7-H4+ tumor macrophages, but not primary ovarian tumor(More)
To directly dissect the role of each immune component in human tumor immunopathogenesis, we have studied the interaction between dendritic cells and T cells in the tumor environment of patients with ovarian carcinoma. We previously reported that functional plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but not functionally mature myeloid dendritic cells, accumulated in(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate peripheral T-cell homeostasis and contribute to self-tolerance. Their homeostatic and pathologic trafficking is poorly understood. Under homeostatic conditions, we show a relatively high prevalence of functional Tregs in human bone marrow. Bone marrow strongly expresses functional stromal-derived factor(More)
Ovarian carcinomas have a poor prognosis, often associated with multifocal i.p. dissemination accompanied by intense neovascularization. To examine tumor angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, we studied malignant ascites and tumors of patients with untreated ovarian carcinoma. We observed that malignant ascites fluid induced potent in vivo(More)
Th17 cells play an active role in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, the nature and regulation of Th17 in the context of tumor immunity remain unknown. In this study, we show that parallel to regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-17(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are kinetically induced in multiple tumor microenvironments in mice and humans. Treg cells(More)
Angiogenesis is essential for both primary and metastatic tumor growth. Tumor blood vessel formation is complex and regulated by many factors. Ovarian carcinomas have a poor prognosis, often associated with multifocal intraperitoneal dissemination accompanied by intense neovascularization. To examine tumor angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, we(More)
Interleukin (IL)-2 is used in the immunotherapy of patients with certain cancer and HIV infection. IL-2 treatment reliably results in 16% to 20% objective clinical response rate in cancer patients, with significant durability of responses in selected patients. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic activity in responding versus nonresponding patients remain(More)
Extract: The immune system is similar to the nervous system to some degree. Both systems are highly organized and orchestrated within multiple levels (molecular, cellular, and organ) and have memory capacity. Furthermore, both systems encounter environmental challenges: the nervous system receives social challenges whereas the immune system receives natural(More)