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As a promiscuous xenobiotic sensor, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) regulates the expression of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in liver. The constitutively activated nature of CAR in the cell-based transfection assays has hindered its use as a predictor of metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Here, we have(More)
The objective of the current study is to investigate the hypothesis that bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induce human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters through the selective activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Human(More)
Natural products regulate cell growth in response to oncogene activation that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines. We investigated the mechanisms of caspase activation in human malignant melanoma, A375-S2 cells, by the natural product shikonin, which was isolated from the plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon SIEB. et ZUCC. Shikonin(More)
The solute carrier family 13 member 5 (SLC13A5) is a sodium-coupled transporter that mediates cellular uptake of citrate, which plays important roles in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Recently, the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), initially characterized as a xenobiotic sensor, has been functionally linked to the regulation of various(More)
—This paper aims to effectively recognize human faces from images, which is an important problem in the multimedia information process. After analyzing the related research works, the framework of the face recognition system is illustrated as first, which contains the training process and the testing process. Particularly, the improved PCA algorithm is use(More)
Induction of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) expression has been found in various tissues and cell-types after exposure to chemicals including 17β-estradiol, rosiglitazone, imatinib, as well as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activators such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), and omeprazole. However, the(More)
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is constitutively activated in immortalized cell lines independent of xenobiotic stimuli. This feature of CAR has limited its use as a sensor for xenobiotic-induced expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Recent reports, however, reveal that a splicing variant of human CAR (hCAR3), which contains an insertion of(More)
Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) plays a key role in regulating metabolism and clearance of endogenous and exogenous substances. Identification of novel hPXR activators among commercial drugs may aid in avoiding drug-drug interactions during coadministration. We applied ligand-based computational approaches for virtual screening of a commonly prescribed(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is a thyroid hormone disruptor in mice; hepatic induction of various metabolic enzymes and transporters has been suggested as the mechanism for this disruption. Utilizing Car (-/-) and Pxr (-/-) mice as well as human primary hepatocytes, here we have demonstrated that BDE-47 activated(More)
Buprenorphine is a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist used for the treatment of opioid dependence that has several advantages over methadone. The principal route of buprenorphine disposition has been well established; however, little is known regarding the potential for buprenorphine to influence the metabolism and clearance of other drugs by affecting the(More)