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Extremely halophilic archaea contain retinal-binding integral membrane proteins called bacteriorhodopsins that function as light-driven proton pumps. So far, bacteriorhodopsins capable of generating a chemiosmotic membrane potential in response to light have been demonstrated only in halophilic archaea. We describe here a type of rhodopsin derived from(More)
The primary design of this perspective is to describe the major ligand classes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A grander objective is to provide models that may help define the physiological activator or "endogenous ligand" of the AHR. We present evidence supporting a developmental role for the AHR and propose mechanisms by which an endogenous(More)
Cultivation-independent surveys of ribosomal RNA genes have revealed the existence of novel microbial lineages, many with no known cultivated representatives. Ribosomal RNA-based analyses, however, often do not provide significant information beyond phylogenetic affiliation. Analysis of large genome fragments recovered directly from microbial communities(More)
Indigo and indirubin have been reported to be present at low levels in human urine. The possibility that indigoids are physiological ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been suggested by initial studies in yeast, where indirubin was found to be 50 times more potent than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin (TCDD), and indigo was found to be(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-associated protein-9 (ARA9) is a chaperone of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The AHR has been shown to play a late developmental role in the normal closure of a fetal hepatovascular shunt known as the ductus venosus (DV). Given that Ara9-null mice display early embryonic lethality, we generated a hypomorphic Ara9 allele(More)
Central tolerance can be mediated by peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) that transport innocuous antigens (Ags) to the thymus for presentation to developing T cells, but the responsible DC subsets remained poorly defined. Immature plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) express CCR9, a chemokine receptor involved in migration of T cell precursors to the thymus. We show here(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binds planar aromatic compounds and up-regulates the transcription of a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. To identify proteins involved in the biosynthesis of endogenous AHR ligands, we screened extracts of various mouse tissues for AHR signaling activity. We found heart extract to activate AHR and identified(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cigarette smoke has been identified as an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes development of CP. We assessed the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands found in cigarette smoke on immune cell activation in humans and pancreatic fibrosis in animal(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known for its role in mediating the toxic and adaptive responses to xenobiotic compounds. Recent studies also indicate that AHR ligands are endogenously produced and may be essential for normal development. Previously, we showed that the endogenous enzyme, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), generates the AHR(More)