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The primary design of this perspective is to describe the major ligand classes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A grander objective is to provide models that may help define the physiological activator or "endogenous ligand" of the AHR. We present evidence supporting a developmental role for the AHR and propose mechanisms by which an endogenous(More)
Indigo and indirubin have been reported to be present at low levels in human urine. The possibility that indigoids are physiological ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been suggested by initial studies in yeast, where indirubin was found to be 50 times more potent than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin (TCDD), and indigo was found to be(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-associated protein-9 (ARA9) is a chaperone of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The AHR has been shown to play a late developmental role in the normal closure of a fetal hepatovascular shunt known as the ductus venosus (DV). Given that Ara9-null mice display early embryonic lethality, we generated a hypomorphic Ara9 allele(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binds planar aromatic compounds and up-regulates the transcription of a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. To identify proteins involved in the biosynthesis of endogenous AHR ligands, we screened extracts of various mouse tissues for AHR signaling activity. We found heart extract to activate AHR and identified(More)
The experimental compound SU5416 went as far as Phase III clinical trials as an anticancer agent, putatively because of its activity as a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, but showed poor results. Here, we show that SU5416 is also an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist with unique properties. Like TCDD, SU5416 favors induction of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in(More)
Lymphocyte recruitment maintains intestinal immune homeostasis but also contributes to inflammation. The orphan chemoattractant receptor GPR15 mediates regulatory T cell homing and immunosuppression in the mouse colon. We show that GPR15 is also expressed by mouse TH17 and TH1 effector cells and is required for colitis in a model that depends on the(More)
Background: Selected gene mutations are routinely used to guide the selection of cancer drugs for a given patient tumour. Large pharmacogenomic data sets were introduced to discover more of these single-gene markers of drug sensitivity. Very recently, machine learning regression has been used to investigate how well cancer cell line sensitivity to drugs is(More)
Recovery from the Flint Water Crisis has been hindered by uncertainty in both the water testing process and the causes of contamination. In this work, we develop an ensemble of predictive models to assess the risk of lead contamination in individual homes and neighborhoods. To train these models, we utilize a wide range of data sources, including voluntary(More)
PURPOSE Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important contributors to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there are insufficient tools for their in vivo evaluation. PROCEDURES To determine if a chemiluminescent ROS reporter, coelenterazine, would be a useful tool for the detection of immune cell activation, the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was(More)