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Sparse matter is abundant and has both strong local bonds and weak nonbonding forces, in particular nonlocal van der Waals (vdW) forces between atoms separated by empty space. It encompasses a broad spectrum of systems, like soft matter, adsorption systems and biostructures. Density-functional theory (DFT), long since proven successful for dense matter,(More)
We propose a second version of the van der Waals density functional of Dion et al. ͓Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 ͑2004͔͒, employing a more accurate semilocal exchange functional and the use of a large-N asymptote gradient correction in determining the vdW kernel. The predicted binding energy, equilibrium separation, and potential-energy curve shape are close(More)
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