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—Closed-form expressions for computing the average bit error rate (BER) for a class of modulation schemes in Ricean flat fading channels with maximal-ratio combining diversity and channel estimation errors are derived. The results are valid for a general multichannel model that includes Ricean and Rayleigh fading channels. The results are applicable to(More)
—The bit-error rate (BER) performance of multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation with pilot-symbol-assisted modulation channel estimation in static and Rayleigh fading channels is derived, both for single branch reception and maximal ratio combining diversity receiver systems. The effects of noise and estimator decorrelation on the received BER are(More)
Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six(More)
Myostatin is a strong inhibitor of muscle growth, and its expression is increased in several types of muscle atrophy. However, whether or not myostatin expression is altered in muscle atrophy associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains uncertain. In this study, we provided experimental evidence to show that myostatin mRNA increased in the early stage of(More)
Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor predominately expressed in skeletal muscle that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Recent studies have indicated that loss function of myostatin not only increases muscle mass but also improves insulin sensitivity in vivo. In the present report, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates glucose metabolism(More)
In this paper, we present a novel hybrid simulated annealing algorithm (HSAA) to efficiently solve three-dimensional multi-bin packing problems. Combined with the concept of the batch and the block, a kind of seven-tuple structure is proposed to optimize the feasible packing space in this algorithm. Moreover, the memory function is increased in the(More)
Reliable model and high performance controller are of two main issues in research of single-phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC). Single-phase UPQC is a nonlinear multi input multi output coupled system and can't be modeled accurately. Therefore neural network with NARMA-L2 structure is utilized to describe the dynamic progress. Based on the(More)