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Recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans and of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus monkeys have shown that resolution of the acute viral infection and control of the subsequent persistent infection are mediated by the antiviral cellular immune response. We comparatively assessed several vaccine vector(More)
All human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine efficacy trials to date have ended in failure. Structural features of the Env glycoprotein and its enormous variability have frustrated efforts to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. To explore the extent to which vaccine-induced cellular immune responses, in the absence of neutralizing antibodies,(More)
Myostatin is a highly conserved member of the transforming growth factor-β ligand family known to regulate muscle growth via activation of activin receptors. A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of activin type IIB receptor with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G (ActRIIB-Fc) was used to inhibit signaling through this(More)
Genetic studies have linked both osteoporotic and high bone mass phenotypes to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP4, LRP5, and LRP6). LRPs are receptors for inhibitory Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) protein, and treatment modalities that modulate LRP/DKK1 binding therefore may act as stimulators of bone mass accrual. Here, we report that RH2-18, a(More)
Cellular immune responses, particularly those associated with CD3(+) CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), play a primary role in controlling viral infection, including persistent infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Accordingly, recent HIV-1 vaccine research efforts have focused on establishing the optimal means of eliciting such(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates LDL cholesterol levels by inhibiting LDL receptor (LDLr)-mediated cellular LDL uptake. We have identified a fragment antigen-binding (Fab) 1D05 which binds PCSK9 with nanomolar affinity. The fully human antibody 1D05-IgG2 completely blocks the inhibitory effects of wild-type PCSK9 and two(More)
The prophylactic efficacy of DNA and replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vaccine vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag was examined in rhesus macaques using an SIVmac239 challenge. Cohorts of either Mamu-A*01(+) or Mamu-A*01(-) macaques were immunized with a DNA prime-Ad5 boost regimen; for comparison, a third cohort(More)
Wnt/LRP5 signaling is a central regulatory component of bone formative and resorptive activities, and the pathway inhibitor DKK1 is a suppressor of bone formation and bone mass accrual in mice. In addition, augmented DKK1 levels are associated with high bone turnover in diverse low bone mass states in rodent models and disease etiologies in human. However,(More)
The goal of an AIDS vaccine regimen designed to induce cellular immune responses should be to reduce the viral set point and preserve memory CD4 lymphocytes. Here we investigated whether vaccine-induced cellular immunity in the absence of any Env-specific antibodies can control viral replication following multiple low-dose challenges with the highly(More)
The Fc region of an antibody mediates effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and plays a key role in the in vivo half-life of an antibody. In designing antibody therapeutics, it is sometimes desirable that the antibody has altered Fc-mediated properties. In the case of a(More)