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IgY(ΔFc), containing only CH1 and CH2 domains, is expressed in the serum of some birds and reptiles, such as ducks and turtles. The duck IgY(ΔFc) is produced by the same υ gene that expresses the intact IgY form (CH1-4) using different transcriptional termination sites. In this study, we show that intact IgY and IgY(ΔFc) are encoded by distinct genes in the(More)
Mammalian IgG and IgE are thought to have evolved from IgY of nonmammalian tetrapods; however, no diversification of IgY subclasses has been reported in reptiles or birds, which are phylogenetically close to mammals. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence of the presence of multiple IgY-encoding (υ) genes in snakes. Two υ genes were identified in(More)
Crocodilians are a group of reptiles that are closely related to birds and are thought to possess a strong immune system. Here we report that the IgH locus in the Siamese crocodile and the Chinese alligator contains multiple μ genes, in contrast to other tetrapods. Both the μ2 and μ3 genes are expressed through class-switch recombination involving the(More)
The retinas of adult teleost fish can regenerate neurons following injury. The current study provides the first documentation of functional whole retina regeneration in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, following intraocular injection of the cytotoxin, ouabain. Loss and replacement of laminated retinal tissue was monitored by analysis of cell death and cell(More)
In this paper, image flow fields from parallel stereo cameras are analyzed to determine the relative 3-D translational motion of the camera platform with respect to objects in view and to establish stereo correspondence of features in the left and right images. A two-step procedure is suggested. In the first step, translational motion parameters are(More)
Sentiment analysis on social networks has attracted ever increasing attention in recent years. To this end, most existing methods mainly focus on analyzing the textual information. This has faced huge difficulty as nowadays users are more likely to express their feelings in a hybrid manner not only with texts, but also with images. It is therefore essential(More)
Many small RNAs have been cloned from animal gonads, for example, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) were found in oocytes and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) were found in testis. Gallus gallus (chicken) is an important model organism, but few small RNAs have been identified from its gonads. In this study, we isolated and cloned 156 small RNAs(More)
Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponges were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then dip-coating in a fluoropolymer (FP) aqueous solution. The sponges were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other analytical(More)
Text, emoticons and images, various modalities have been used to express users' feelings on social media, which significantly challenges traditional text-based sentiment analysis approaches. In this paper, we propose a Multi-modal Correlation Model (MCM) for multi-modal sentiment analysis. Compared with other multi-modal methods, MCM models hierarchical(More)