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This paper proposes an approach for providing tolerance against faults that may compromise the functionality of a given controller that is modeled by a Petri net. The method is based on embedding the given Petri net controller into a larger (redundant) Petri net controller that retains the original functionality and properties, and uses additional places,(More)
In this paper we develop a probabilistic methodology for failure diagnosis in finite state machines based on a sequence of unreliable observations. Given prior knowledge of the input probability distribution but without actual knowledge of the applied input sequence, the core problem we consider aims to choose from a pool of known, deterministic finite(More)
This paper develops an algorithm for estimating the minimum initial marking based on the observation of a sequence of labels that is produced by underlying transition activity in a given labeled Petri net. We assume that the structure of the net is completely known while the initial marking of the net is unknown. Given the observation of the sequence of(More)
Understanding a mechanism of bone remodeling is a challenging task for both life scientists and model builders, since this highly interactive and nonlinear process can seldom be grasped by simple intuition. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) have been built for simulating bone formation as well as bone resorption. Although solving ODEs(More)
This paper proposes an approach for estimating the least-cost transition firing sequence(s) that matches (match) the observation of a sequence of labels produced by transition activity in a given labeled Petri net. Each transition in the labeled net is associated with a (possibly empty) label and also with a nonnegative cost which captures its likelihood(More)
Current research in automatic train operation concentrates on optimizing an energy-efficient speed profile and designing control algorithms to track the speed profile, which may reduce the comfort of passengers and impair the intelligence of train operation. Different from previous studies, this paper presents two intelligent train operation (ITO)(More)
Separation of plant proanthocyanidins remains a major challenge for scientists due to the structural diversity and complexity. In this work, a new and effective method was developed for preparative separation of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) according to degree of polymerization (DP) by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Under the(More)
Polymeric proanthocyanidins isolated from a grape seed phenolic extract were hydrolysed in the presence of phloroglucinol into monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives. Each of the phloroglucinolysis products was successfully separated and isolated in large amount by semi-preparative HSCCC technique under the optimized conditions based on a(More)