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The RV144 trial demonstrated that an experimental AIDS vaccine can prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans. Because of its limited efficacy, further understanding of the mechanisms of preventive AIDS vaccines remains a priority, and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of lentiviral infection provide an opportunity to define(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a(More)
The design of immunogens that elicit broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has been a major obstacle to HIV-1 vaccine development. One approach to assess potential immunogens is to use mice expressing precursors of human bnAbs as vaccination models. The bnAbs of the VRC01-class derive from the IGHV1-2 immunoglobulin heavy chain and neutralize a(More)
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces, independently of infection, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta from macrophages, that are implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia. However, the signal transduction pathways involved have not been fully defined. Previously, our laboratory reported that soluble gp120(More)
Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to the public and are a burden on global health systems. Each year, influenza vaccines must be rapidly produced to match circulating viruses, a process constrained by dated technology and vulnerable to unexpected strains emerging from humans and animal reservoirs. Here we use knowledge of protein structure to(More)
Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are lead vaccine candidates for protection against a variety of pathogens, including Ebola, HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, due to their ability to potently induce T cell immunity in humans. However, the ability to induce protective cellular immunity varies among rAds. Here, we assessed the mechanisms that control the(More)
The antibody response to influenza is primarily focused on the head region of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which in turn undergoes antigenic drift, thus necessitating annual updates of influenza vaccines. In contrast, the immunogenically subdominant stem region of HA is highly conserved and recognized by antibodies capable of binding multiple HA(More)
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as a cause of severe respiratory disease highlights the need for effective approaches to CoV vaccine development. Efforts focused solely on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike (S) glycoprotein may not optimize neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Here we show that(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is characterized by the rapid onset of intestinal T-cell depletion that initiates the progression to AIDS. The induction of protective immunity in the intestinal mucosa therefore represents a potentially desirable feature of a preventive AIDS vaccine. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of an(More)
Effective vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will likely need to stimulate protective immunity in the intestinal mucosa, where HIV-1 infection causes severe CD4(+) T-cell depletion. While replication-competent recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors can stimulate adenovirus-specific mucosal immunity after replication, oral delivery of(More)