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Adapting keyword search to XML data has been attractive recently, generalized as XML keyword search (XKS). One of its key tasks is to return the meaningful fragments as the result. [1] is the latest work following this trend, and it focuses on returning the fragments rooted at SLCA (Smallest LCA -- Lowest Common Ancestor) nodes. To guarantee that the(More)
Phagocytosis and subsequent degradation of pathogens by macrophages play a pivotal role in host innate immune responses to microbial infection. Recent studies have shown that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in promoting the clearance of bacteria by up-regulating the phagocytic activity of macrophages. However, information regarding the(More)
Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present(More)
Sixteen small-scale wetlands planted with four plant species were constructed for domestic wastewater purification. The objective of this study was to determine the correlations between contaminant removal and soil enzyme activity, root activity, and growth in the constructed wetlands. The results indicated that correlations between contaminant removal(More)
Dual-trap laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) and elastic light scattering (ELS) were used to investigate dynamic processes during high-temperature treatment of individual spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus subtilis in water. Major conclusions from these studies included the following. (i) After spores of all three species(More)
The trace element Selenium is suggested having cancer prevention activity and used as food supplement. Previous results had shown Selenium nanoparticles are safer compared with other Selenium compounds like selenomethionine, sodium selenite and monomethylated Selenium, however, its anticancer activity and intrinsic mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play a critical role in innate immune responses to microbial infection through eliciting the biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. MAP phosphatases (MKP)-1 is an archetypical member of the dual-specificity phosphatase family that deactivates MAP kinases. Induction of MKP-1 has been implicated in attenuating the(More)
Nonalcoholic fibrosing steatohepatitis is a uniform process throughout nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to modulate cellular processes in liver diseases. However, the functional role of miRNAs in nonalcoholic fibrosing steatohepatitis is largely unclear. In this study, we systematically analyzed the hepatic(More)
We present a methodology that combines external phase contrast microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical tweezers to monitor a variety of changes during the germination of single Bacillus cereus spores in both nutrient (l-alanine) and non-nutrient (Ca-dipicolinic acid (DPA)) germinants with a temporal resolution of approximately 2 s. Phase contrast(More)
Raman tweezers and quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy are combined to monitor the dynamic germination of individual bacterial spores of Bacillus species, as well as the heterogeneity in this process. The DIC bias phase is set properly such that the brightness of DIC images of individual spores is proportional to the dipicolinic(More)