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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Neuroinflammation is prominent in the short and long-term consequences of neuronal injuries that occur after TBI. Neuroinflammation involves the activation of glia, including microglia and astrocytes, to release inflammatory mediators within the brain, and the subsequent(More)
Methamphetamine (METH)-induced cell death contributes to the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity; however, the relative roles of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy remain unclear. L-Ascorbate, also called vitamin (Vit.) C, confers partial protection against METH neurotoxicity via induction of heme oxygenase-1. We further investigated the role of Vit. C in(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus has been detected after TBI. The hippocampal dysfunction may result in cognitive deficits in learning, memory, and spatial information processing. Our previous studies demonstrated that a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α oxygen analogue (PFT-α(More)
AIMS Bacterial meningitis causes high mortality and brain damage. The host immune response is associated with brain injury. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) (CXC) chemokines are neutrophil chemoattractants. This study focused on the beneficial effects of intracerebroventricular administration of reparixin, an inhibitor of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)1/2,(More)
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