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Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a subset of bone marrow cells that are capable of self-renewal and of forming all types of blood cells (multi-potential). However, the HSC 'niche'--the in vivo regulatory microenvironment where HSCs reside--and the mechanisms involved in controlling the number of adult HSCs remain largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic(More)
Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many(More)
Glutaminase 1 is the main enzyme responsible for glutamate production in mammalian cells. The roles of macrophage and microglia glutaminases in brain injury, infection, and inflammation are well documented. However, little is known about the regulation of neuronal glutaminase, despite neurons being a predominant cell type of glutaminase expression. Using(More)
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF family that participates in HIV-1 pathogenesis through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can be cleaved into a soluble, secreted form. The regulation of TRAIL in macrophages during HIV-1 infection is not completely(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS There is increased evidence that partial nitrate (NO3-) nutrition (PNN) improves growth of rice (Oryza sativa), although the crop prefers ammonium (NH4+) to NO3- nutrition. It is not known whether the response to NO3- supply is related to nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) in rice cultivars. Methods Solution culture experiments were(More)
Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a(More)
Odontogenesis relies on the reciprocal signaling interactions between dental epithelium and neural crest-derived mesenchyme, which is regulated by several signaling pathways. Subtle changes in the activity of these major signaling pathways can have dramatic effects on tooth development. An important regulator of such subtle changes is the fine tuning(More)
In addition to its surface glycoprotein (GP(1,2)), Ebola virus (EBOV) directs the production of large quantities of a truncated glycoprotein isoform (sGP) that is secreted into the extracellular space. The generation of secreted antigens has been studied in several viruses and suggested as a mechanism of host immune evasion through absorption of antibodies(More)
Echinacoside (ECH) is protective in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). To investigate the mechanisms involved, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with MPP+ or a combination of MPP+ and ECH, and the expression of ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3), CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein), SCNA(More)
The matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9, are involved in the neuroinflammation processes leading to disrupting of the blood brain barrier (BBB), thereby exacerbating neurological diseases such as HIV-1 AIDS dementia and cerebral ischemia. Nanoparticles have been proposed to act as non-viral gene delivery vectors and have great(More)