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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Long Hypocotyl in Far-Red 1 (HFR1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is required for both phytochrome A-mediated far-red and cryptochrome 1-mediated blue light signaling. Here, we report that HFR1 is a short-lived protein in darkness and is(More)
Genome stability necessitates a mechanism to protect the termini of linear chromosomes from inappropriate degradation or recombination. In many species this protection depends on 'capping' proteins that bind telomeric DNA. The budding yeast Cdc13p binds single-stranded telomeric sequences, prevents lethal degradation of chromosome ends and regulates(More)
A simple and rapid harvesting method by in situ magnetic separation with naked Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles has been developed for the microalgal recovery of Botryococcus braunii and Chlorella ellipsoidea. After adding the magnetic particles to the microalgal culture broth, the microalgal cells were adsorbed and then separated by an external magnetic field. The(More)
Containment of highly lethal Ebola virus outbreaks poses a serious public health challenge. Although an experimental vaccine has successfully protected non-human primates against disease, more than six months was required to complete the immunizations, making it impractical to limit an acute epidemic. Here, we report the development of accelerated(More)
The remarkable diversity, glycosylation and conformational flexibility of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env), including substantial rearrangement of the gp120 glycoprotein upon binding the CD4 receptor, allow it to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Despite this complexity, the HIV-1 Env must retain conserved determinants(More)
The reverse transcriptase inhibitor, nevirapine (NVP), causes skin rashes and hepatotoxicity. We used a rat model to determine if the rash is caused by the parent drug or a reactive metabolite. By manipulation of metabolic pathways and testing analogues, we eliminated all but one pathway, 12-hydroxylation, which involves the oxidation of an exocyclic methyl(More)
PURPOSE To measure and analyse national EQ-5D data and to provide norms for the Chinese general population by age, sex, educational level, income and employment status. METHODS The EQ-5D instrument was included in the National Health Services Survey 2008 (n = 120,703) to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All descriptive analyses by(More)
Water is essential for all living organisms. Aquaporin proteins are the major facilitator of water transport activity through cell membranes of plants including soybean. These proteins are diverse in plants and belong to a large major intrinsic (MIP) protein family. In higher plants, MIPs are classified into five subfamilies including plasma membrane(More)